Subgenus Tergosmia

The subgenus Tergosmia Warncke is confined to the Palaearctic region. It contains 7 described species.

Five brood cells of Osmia (Tergosmia) tergestensis Ducke, 1897 built from petals and mud and hidden between the blades of a dense grass tussocks; the grass blades were removed to make the cells visible. Foto A. Müller.

Species accounts

Osmia (Tergosmia) avosetta Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) avosetta Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 394. Type material: Holotype f, “Erçek/Van” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff. Type species of Ozbekosmia Zanden.-Combination Osmia (Heterosmia) avosetta Warncke in Tkalcu (1993a: 56). Combination Osmia (Ozbekosmia) avosetta Warncke in Zanden (1994a), Michener (2007) and Ungricht et al. (2008).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IR, JOR, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller (2020); Zanden (1994a: 168).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows (3-7cm deep) in rather loose, sandy to gravelly ground with usually one vertically oriented cell at the end of the burrow, rarely with two cells immediately beside each other. Whether the short and 6–7 mm wide entrance burrow leading to the brood cell(s) remains open after cell closure is unclear, but indications exist that the females do not actively fill it with soil or other particles. Nesting material: The cells, which range in depth from 1.5–5cm and have a length of 15–17.5mm and a diameter of 7–9mm, are distinctly three-layered with a thin mud layer sandwiched between two layers of large petal pieces of Hedysarum, Onobrychis (both Fabaceae) or other plant taxa. Brood parasites: probably Sapyga pulcherrima Morawitz (Sapygidae). (Rozen et al. 2010).

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Fabaceae; exclusive pollen hosts are species of Hedysareae (e.g. Hedysarum, Onobrychis). (Müller, 2020; Özbek & Zanden 1992; Rozen et al. 2010)

Osmia (Tergosmia) lunata Benoist, 1928

1928 Osmia lunata Benoist, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc (Rabat), 8: 213. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1985: 53), “environs de Rabat” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris); paralectotype m.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) lunata (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 53).

Distribution-Europe: E, F, P. Northern Africa: MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931); Müller (2020); Warncke (1988b); Zanden (1985: 54).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in the ground. The burrow entrances are usually hidden under small shrublets. For each cell, a more or less vertical burrow (1.5cm deep) is excavated in rather hard soil. Up to 10 cells are built immediately beside each other separated by few millimeters only. The cells of a single nest – when removed from the soil – partly adhere to each other by small earthen bridges. Nesting material: The cells (ca. 1.5cm long) are entirely built of petals (e.g. of Helianthemum) and mud. The cell walls are usually three-layered: the outer layer consists of small to large petal pieces glued together with mud, rarely with small pebbles as well; the central layer consists of a thin layer of mud, which is sometimes only weakly developed; the inner layer is composed of 6-10 layers of large petal pieces without any addition of mud. After egg deposition, the cell is closed by folding over the inner layer of petals. Afterwards, the cell cap is built which is composed of two layers: the inner layer is rather thick and consists of small petal pieces glued together with mud and small pebbles; the outer layer consists of a thin wall of petal pieces neatly glued together. Occasionally, the cell cap is rather three-layered with an inner layer of small petal pieces, a central layer of mud and small pebbles and an outer layer composed of a thin wall of petal pieces. In the end, the cell cap is hidden under a thin and loose layer of sand and small pebbles. (Müller, 2020; Rozen et al., 2010)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Fabaceae with strong preference for Loteae (e.g. Lotus, Hippocrepis). (Müller, 2020; Rozen et al., 2010)

tergestensis species group

Osmia (Tergosmia) agilis Morawitz, 1875

1875 Osmia agilis Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 88. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1991a: 48), “Tschardara” [Kazakhstan], ZMUM (Moscow); paralectotypes mm, ff.-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) agilis Morawitz in Friese (1911b: 110). Combination Osmia (Diceratosmia) agilis Morawitz in Tkalcu (1969a: 333). Combination Osmia (Caerulosmia) agilis Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 123).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ, TM, UZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Müller (2020); Warncke (1992b: 917); Zanden (1991a).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably polylectic with strong preference for Fabaceae; pollen hosts among the Fabaceae are species of Hedysareae (e.g. Onobrychis) and other tribes. Additional plant families recorded in small quantities in the pollen loads analysed were Brassicaceae, Papaveraceae and Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichorioideae). The females of O. agilis possess long and apically curved bristles on the galeae of the proboscis. Such specialized bristles have evolved in several bee taxa for scraping pollen out of flowers which have their anthers concealed within narrow tubes (Müller 1995, 2006; Parker & Tepedino 1982; Thorp 1979, 2000). However, none of the pollen hosts recorded for O. agilis so far possesses narrow-tubed flowers, rendering the function of these specialized bristles enigmatic. (Müller, 2020)

Osmia (Tergosmia) glareola Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) glareola Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 393. Type material: Holotype f, “Erçek/Van” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m(m), f(f).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller (2020).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Fabaceae; pollen hosts are species of Hedysareae (e.g. Onobrychis) and other Fabaceae tribes. (Müller, 2020)

Osmia (Tergosmia) pratincola Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) pratincola Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 392. Type material: Holotype f, “20 km N Patnos/Agri, 1650 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m(m), f(f).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller (2020).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown; one pollen load consisted of pollen of Fabaceae (Müller, 2020).

Osmia (Tergosmia) rhodoensis (Zanden, 1983)

1983 Anthocopa rhodoensis Zanden, Faunistische Abhandlungen (Dresden), 10: 126. Type material: Holotype m, “Profitis Ilias, Rhodos” [Greece], RMNH (Leiden); paratypes mm, ff.

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) rhodoensis ferina Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 391. Type material: Holotype f, “Delphi” [Greece], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm.-Synonymy in Müller (2020).

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) rhodoensis arquata Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 391. Type material: Holotype f, “südlich Rize, 1800 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.-Synonymy in Müller (2020).

Distribution-Europe: ARM, GR. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller (2020); Warncke (1988b).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: holes and fissures in rocks and stones. The nests contain one to several brood cells, which are constructed closely beside each other and completely hidden within the cavity. Nesting material: The cells, which are neither glued to the substrate nor to adjacent cells, are three-layered with a thin mud layer  sandwiched between two layers of large petal pieces of Geranium (Geraniaceae), Linum (Linaceae) and possibly other plant taxa. (Müller, 2020; Warncke 1988; Rozen et al. 2010)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with strong preference for Fabaceae; pollen hosts among the Fabaceae are species of Hedysareae (e.g. Onobrychis), Trifolieae (e.g. Trifolium), Galegeae (e.g. Astragalus), Loteae (e.g. Lotus) and other tribes. Additional plant families exploited for pollen are Resedaceae, Campanulaceae, Brassicaceae and Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichorioideae). The pollen provision of one brood cell from Jordan contained a mixture of pollen of Campanulaceae, Fabaceae (three types including Onobrychis), Resedaceae and Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichorioideae). (Müller, 2020; Rozen et al. 2010).

Osmia (Tergosmia) tergestensis Ducke, 1897

1897 Osmia tergestensis Ducke, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 23: 41. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1983: 125), “Triest” [Italy], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype m. Type species of Tergosmia Warncke.-Combination Osmia (Osmia) tergestensis Ducke in Friese (1911b: 91). Combination Anthocopa tergestensis (Ducke) in Zanden (1983: 125).

1897 Osmia ononidis Ferton, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 52: 44. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1979: 319), “Massenenie” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Tergosmia) tergestensis ononidis Ferton in Warncke (1988b: 392). Synonymy in Müller (2020).

1902 Osmia Rondoui Pérez, Procès-verbaux de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 57: 66. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1979: 329), “Gèdre” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988b: 392).

1922 Osmia wolhynica Noskiewicz, Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 1: 9. Type material: Syntypes mm, “Lösstal bei Krasny Staw in der Nähe von Lublin” [Poland].-Synonymy in Warncke (1988b: 392).

1934 Osmia atlantica Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 39: 107. Type material: Holotype f, “Asni” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Zanden (1985: 63).

1979 Anthocopa tergestensis remota Tkalcu, Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca (Praha), 76: 320. Type material: Holotype f, “O-Türkei” [Turkey], EMET (Erzurum); paratypes mm, ff.-Synonymy in Warncke (1988b: 392).

Distribution-Europe: A, BG, CH, CZ, E, F, GE, GR, H, HR, I, P, PL, RUS(SR), SK, SLO, UA(Crimea). Northern Africa: MA; ET?. Northern Asia: KZ. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Móczár (1958); Müller (2020); Scheuchl (1996); Warncke (1988b); Zanden (1983: 126-129).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: under or between stones, in holes and fissures of rocks and stones, in dense grass tussocks, occasionally also in hollow broken stems of Heracleum (Apiaceae). The nests contain one to five brood cells, which are constructed closely beside each other and completely hidden within the cavity. In narrow cavities, the space in front of the cell(s) is sometimes filled with earth fragments up to a length of 0.5cm. Nesting material: The cells, whose orientation varies from horizontal to nearly vertical and which are neither glued to the substrate nor to adjacent cells, are three-layered with a central layer built of mud and small pebbles sandwiched between two layers of large petal pieces of Cistus (Cistaceae), Geranium (Geraniaceae), Helianthemum (Cistaceae), Hieracium (Asteraceae), Linum (Linaceae), Ononis (Fabaceae) and probably other plant taxa. (Benoist 1931; Ferton 1897; Ivanov & Filatov 2008; Müller et al. 1997, 2020; Rozen et al. 2010)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Fabaceae; pollen hosts are species of Loteae (e.g. Lotus, Hippocrepis), Hedysareae (e.g. Onobrychis), Genisteae, Galegeae (e.g. Astragalus) and other Fabaceae tribes. (Müller, 2020; Özbek 1979, 2013; Özbek & Zanden 1992; Rozen et al. 2010)