Subgenus Tkalcua

The subgenus Tkalcua Kocak & Kemal is confined to the Palaearctic region. It contains 3 species.

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Female of Hoplitis (Tkalcua) zandeni (Teunissen & van Achterberg, 1992) leaving her nest in an empty snail shell. Foto A. Müller.

Species accounts

Hoplitis (Tkalcua) emiratensis (Müller, 2016)

2016 Hoplitis (Tkalcua) emiratensis Müller in Müller and Mauss, Zootaxa, 4127: 112. Type material: Holotype m, “Wadi Shawkah” [United Arab Emirates], ETHZ (Zurich); paratype m.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: UAE.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Tkalcua) paralias (Mavromoustakis, 1954)

1954 Osmia paralias Mavromoustakis, Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel, 4: 266. Type material: Holotype f, “Bat Yam” [Israel], DAAN (Nicosia); paratypes mm, ff.-Combination Stenosmia paralias (Mavromoustakis) in Zanden (1988b: 128), rejected by Warncke (1991b: 402). Combination Hoplitis (Microhoplitis) paralias (Mavromoustakis) in Ungricht et al. (2008).

Distribution-Northern Africa: MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: IL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller and Mauss (2016); Zanden (1992c: 824).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources known so far include Genisteae (Fabaceae), Zygophyllaceae and Brassicaceae (Müller and Mauss, 2016). Flower record: Retama raetam (label record).

Hoplitis (Tkalcua) zandeni (Teunissen & van Achterberg, 1992)

1992 Osmia zandeni Teunissen & van Achterberg, Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden), 66: 313. Type material: Holotype m, “Puerto del Rosario, Fuerteventura” [Spain: Canary Islands], RMNH (Leiden); paratypes mm, ff.

1993 Osmia (Microhoplitis) hohmanni Tkalcu, Veröffentlichungen des Übersee-Museum Bremen (Naturwissenschaften), 12: 812. Type material: Holotype m, “Fuerteventura Risco del Paso” [Spain: Canary Islands], La Roche Collection; paratypes mm, ff. Type species of Microhoplitis Tkalcu.-Synonymy in Zanden (1995: 428).

Distribution-Northern Africa: E(Ca).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller and Mauss (2016).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: snail shells of Theba geminata with 1-2 brood cells per shell. The closed shells are neither transported nor turned nor buried into the ground. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug, which is built inside the shell rather than at the shell opening, consist of chewed leaves (e.g. of Helianthemum canariense) densely mixed with sand grains. The shell surface is not plastered with patches of leaf pulp. (Müller and Mauss, 2016)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources recorded so far include – in descending order of importance – different species of Fabaceae (e.g. Astragalus hamosus, Lotus glinoides, L. lancerottensisOnonis natrix), Reseda lancerotae (Resedaceae), Frankenia laevis (Frankeniaceae), Heliotropium erosum (Boraginaceae), Helianthemum canariense (Cistaceae) and Kickxia sagittata (Plantaginaceae); interestingly, flowers of Asteraceae do not seem to be exploited for pollen (Müller and Mauss, 2016).