Subgenus Helicosmia

The subgenus Helicosmia Thomson is distributed both in the Palaearctic and the Nearctic region. It contains 72 described species, 68 of which occur in the Palaearctic. At least 1 Palaearctic species is still undescribed (A. Müller, unpublished).

Female of Osmia (Helicosmia) leaiana (Kirby, 1802) collecting pollen on a thistle; many Helicosmia species show a close affiliation to Asteraceae as pollen hosts. Foto A. Krebs.

Species accounts

Osmia (Helicosmia) adae Bingham, 1897

1897 Osmia adae Bingham, The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, vol. 1: p. 468. Type material: m(m), “Kumaun, N.W. Himalayas” [India].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) adae Bingham in Zanden (1988b: 124).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: PAK. Extralimital: Oriental (India, Nepal).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Engel (2006: 126­127).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) aeruginosa Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) aeruginosa Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 26. Type material: Holotype f, “südl. Varegös im Mt. Sat in 1700 m/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes ff.

Distribution- Europe: GR. Southwestern Asia: IR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources recorded so far are Fabaceae, Antirrhineae and Boraginaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 3 pollen samples from 3 different localities). The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on the clypeus composed of curved bristles, which are certainly used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Antirrhineae and probably Lamiaceae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) alaiensis Zanden, 1994

1994 Osmia (Chalcosmia) alaiensis Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 30: 168. Type material: Holotype f, “Pamir-Alai, Ansob, 3000-3200 m” [Tajikistan], MTD (Dresden); paratypes mm.

Distribution-Northern Asia: TJ; Central Asian Ranges.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) alfkenii Ducke, 1899

1899 Osmia (Melanosmia) alfkenii Ducke, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 211. Type material: Holotype f, “Biscra” [Algeria], ZMHB (Berlin).

1902 Osmia niveibarbis Pérez, Procès-verbaux de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 57: 64. Type material: m(m), “Médénin et Foum-Tatahouin” [Tunisia], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) niveibarbis Pérez in Zanden (1988b: 125). New synonymy based on type material (A. Müller, unpublished).

1942 Osmia crinita Alfken, Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen, 3: 214. Type material: Holotype f, “Wadi Um Assad” [Egypt], ZMHB (Berlin): paratypes m, ff.-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) crinita Alfken in Zanden (1988b: 124).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 9).

Distribution-Europe: I(Sa). Northern Africa: DZ,ET, LAR, MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Zanden (1989: 76). Misapplication: Osmia niveibarbis sensu Warncke (1988a) is Osmia (Helicosmia) heteracantha Pérez, 1896.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Reared from a nest of Eumenes. Nesting material: Unknown.(Zanden, 1989)

Flower preferences: Probably mesolectic on Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Antirrhineae (e.g. Antirrhinum ramosissimum, Kickxia aegyptiaca) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 13 pollen samples from 13 different localities and on field observations). The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on the clypeus composed of curved bristles, which are most probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and Antirrhineae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) aquila Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) aquila Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 13. Type material: Holotype m, “Madensehir/Konya, 1300 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR,TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) breviata Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) breviata Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 14. Type material: Holotype f, “Madensehir/Konya” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m(m), f(f).

Distribution-Europe: GR. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. The only four pollen samples available so far (from three different localities) consist of pollen of Fabaceae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) brevipes Zanden, 1994

1994 Osmia (Chalcosmia) brevipes Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 26: 1115. Type material: Holotype m, “Sivas, Gürün” [Turkey], Schwarz Collection (Ansfelden); paratypes m, f.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758)

1758 Apis caerulescens Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, 10th edn, vol. 1, p. 576. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Day (1979: 54), “in Europa” [Sweden], LSUK (London).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) caerulescens (Linnaeus) in Friese (1911b: 116).

1761 Apis aenea Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, 2nd edn, p. 421. Type material: Holotype m, [Sweden], LSUK (London).-Synonymy in Warncke (1986: 73).

1776 Apis superbus Harris, An exposition of English insects, with curious observations and remarks, p. 164. Type material: f(f), [United Kingdom].-Synonymy in Warncke (1986: 112).

1783 Apis muraria Retzius, Caroli De Geer genera et species Insectorum […], p. 60 [not seen]. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), [France].-Synonymy in Warncke (1986: 120).

1785 Apis cuprea Geoffroy, in: Fourcroy, Entomologia Parisiensis, vol. 2, p. 447. Type material: f(f), [France].-Synonymy in Warncke (1986: 95).

1802 Andrena cupraria Walckenaer, Faune Parisienne, vol. 2, p. 107. Type material: m(m), [France].-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 20).

1864 Osmia purpurea Cresson, Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 3: 27. Type material: Lectotype f, [USA], Philadelphia.-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 20).

1864 Osmia rustica Cresson, Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 3: 37. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Apis rustica Geoffroy, 1785]. Type material: Lectotype m, [USA], Philadelphia.-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 20).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL, AND, ARM, AZ,B, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, E(Ba), F, F(Co), FL, FIN, GB, GE, GR, GR(Cr), H, HR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), L, LT, LV, M, MD, MK, N, NL, P, PL, RO, RUS, S, SCG, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Africa: DZ, ET, MA, TN. Northern Asia: KS, KZ, RC, TJ, TM, UZ. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, JOR, PAK, SYR, TR. Extralimital: Nearctic (Canada, USA) [Potentially introduced], Oriental (India).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Radoszkowski (1887a: 288-289); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1975c: 299, 1978: 164-167); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood and drilled borings in wooden blocks; hollow stems (e.g. bamboo, Arundo, Phragmites, Rubus) and drilled borings in pithy stems; insect burrows in the ground (e.g. from Odynerus, Anthophora, Colletes); abandoned cells in exposed nests of other aculeates (e.g. Sceliphron, Hoplitis); cavities in banks; holes and crevices in walls; glass tubes. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug made of chewed leave material (e.g. from Alnus, Leonurus, Lotus, Malva, Medicago, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Papaver), sometimes chewed petals (e.g. from Malva, Medicago, Onobrychis, Papaver) are used as well. Irregularities in the nest burrows are lined with leaf pulp. In larger cavities, cells are irregularly arranged with cell walls partially or wholly built of masticated leaves. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Bonelli, 1967c, 1968; Brechtel, 1986; Ferton, 1897; Friese, 1923; Gerstaecker, 1869; Grandi, 1961; Hurd, 1979; Koerber and Medler, 1958; Krombein, 1967; Malyshev, 1937; Marikovskaya, 1968; Mavromoustakis, 1948c; Medler, 1967; Müller et al., 1997; Olifir, 1980; Popov, 1967a; Romasenko, 1980; Smith, 1844; Stoeckhert, 1933; Tasei, 1972; Westrich, 1989; Vicens, Bosch and Blas, 1993; G. Else, unpublished manuscript; G. Le Goff, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Polylectic, collects pollen nearly exclusively on Fabaceae (e.g. Coronilla, Hippocrepis, Lotus, Medicago, Melilotus, Onobrychis, Trifolium, Vicia), Lamiaceae (e.g. Ajuga, Clinopodium, Glechoma, Lamium, Prunella, Salvia, Stachys, Teucrium), Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium) and Antirrhineae (Raw, 1974; Tasei, 1976; Westrich, 1989; Müller, 1996b; A. Müller, based on 68 pollen samples from 57 different localities and on field observations). Westrich (1989) lists Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Hypericum (Hypericaceae) and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) as additional pollen hosts. The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on the clypeus composed of curved bristles, which are used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and Antirrhineae (Müller, 1996b).

subspecies caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758)

1758 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL, AND, ARM, AZ, B, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, E(Ba), F, FL, FIN, GB, GE, GR, GR(Cr), H, HR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), L, LV, M, MD, MK, N, NL, P, PL, RO, RUS, S, SCG, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Asia: KS, KZ, RC, TJ, TM, UZ. Southwestern Asia: CY, IR, JOR, PAK, SYR, TR. Extralimital: Nearctic (Canada, USA) [Potentially introduced], Oriental (India).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

subspecies cyanea (Fabricius, 1793)

1793 Andrena cyanea Fabricius, Entomologia Systematica, vol. 2, p. 309. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1970: 8), “Habitat in Barbariae” [Algeria], ZMUC (Copenhagen).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) caerulescens cyanea (Fabricius) in Tkalcu (1970: 8).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, ET, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1970: 8).

Osmia (Helicosmia) carinoclypearis Wu, 1985

1985 Osmia carinoclypearis Wu, Biology of the Tianshan Tumur Region, p. 146 [not seen]. Type material: Holotype f, “Tianshan Tumur Region, Xingjiang” [China], IZCAS (Beijing).

1992 Osmia (Helicosmia) frunseensis Warncke, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 24: 918. Type material: Holotype f, “Alla Arca, 50 km S Frunse” [Kyrgyzstan], OLML (Linz); paratypes m(m), f(f).-New synonymy based on original description (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, RC(NW), TJ. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. The only pollen sample available so far consists of pollen of Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) chinensis Morawitz, 1890

1890 Osmia chinensis Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 24: 371. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Tkalcu (1995: 143), “Kansu Rtygry” [China], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) chinensis Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 124).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1995: 143-145); Wu (2006). Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) chrysaetos Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) chrysaetos Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 15. Type material: Holotype f, “S Varegös im Mt. Sat in 1800 m/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m(m), f(f).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. 3 pollen samples from 3 different localities consist of pollen of Fabaceae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) cinerea Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) cinerea Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 17. Type material: Holotype f, “25 km NW Yüksekova in 2200 m/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m(m), f(f).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on narrow-tubed flowers of Boraginaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 3 pollen samples from 3 different localities). The galeae of the female proboscis are densely covered with rather short, stiff and strongly curved bristles, which are most probably used to extract pollen from narrow-tubed boraginaceous flowers (A. Müller, unpublished).  Similar specialized bristles developed either on the mouthparts or on the forelegs are known to occur in many other bee taxa where they serve to extract pollen from narrow-tubed flowers (Müller, 1995, 2006; Müller and Kuhlmann, 2003; Thorp, 2000).

Osmia (Helicosmia) clypearis Morawitz, 1871

1871 Osmia clypearis Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 8: 204. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1986: 68), “Korfu” [Greece], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) clypearis Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 124).

1979 Osmia (Chalcosmia) macedonica Tkalcu, Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca (Praha), 76: 323. Type material: Holotype f, “Matka, Ortschaft am gleichnamigen See, ca. 10 km sww. von Skopje” [Macedonia], RMNH (Leiden); paratype f.-Synonymy in Zanden (1986: 68).

Distribution-Europe: BG,E, GR, MK; Caucasus. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: One nest of the subspecies acuta was detected in an empty snail shell. Nesting material: The nest plug consisted of masticated leaves. (A. Müller, C. Praz and C. Sedivy, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae; all pollen samples analysed so far consist of pollen of Carduoideae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 9 pollen samples from 7 different localities).

subspecies acuta Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) clypearis acuta Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 31. Type material: Holotype f, “20 km W Sarikamis/Kars in 2150 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

subspecies clypearis Morawitz, 1871

1871 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: BG, E, GR, MK; Caucasus.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Warncke (1988a). Note: Male unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) concavoclypearis Wu, 1985

1985 Osmia concavoclypearis Wu, Biology of the Tianshan Tumur Region, p. 146 [not seen]. Type material: “Tianshan Tumur Region, Xingjiang” [China], IZCAS (Beijing).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, RC(NW).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. The only pollen sample available so far consists of pollen of Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) cyanescens Morawitz, 1875

1875 Osmia cyanescens Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 85. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “in valle Sarafschan” [Tajikistan].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) cyanescens Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 124).

Distribution- Europe:R US. Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. The only pollen sample available so far consists of pollen of Fabaceae (A. Müller, unpublished). The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on the clypeus composed of curved bristles, which are probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and Antirrhineae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) damascena Pérez, 1911

1911 Osmia Damascena Pérez, Bulletin de la Société des Amis de Sciences Naturelles de Rouen, 47: 78. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Région verdoyante de Damas” [Syria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) damascena Pérez in Zanden (1988b: 124).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: SYR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) dimidiata Morawitz, 1870

1870 Osmia dimidiata Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 7: 316. Type material: f(f), “Hab. in Caucaso” [Caucasus].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) dimidiata Morawitz in Tkalcu (1974b: 336).

1887 Osmia Taurica Radoszkowski, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 21: 285. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Pseudosmia taurica Radoszkowski, 1874]. Type material: Holotype f, “Tauria” [Ukraine], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy with female of Osmia dimidiata Morawitz and with male of Osmia vidua Gerstaecker in Friese (1909: 126), the latter synonymy rejected by Ivanov et al. (2013).

1899 Osmia rossica Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 64. NOMEN NOVUM with same type specimen for preoccupied Osmia taurica Radoszkowski, 1887 [not Pseudosmia taurica Radoszkowski, 1874].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) dimidiata rossica Friese in Tkalcu (1975c: 308).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 34).

Distribution-Europe: AL, BG,E, F, GR, GR(Cr), I, I(Sa), I(Si), MK, P, RUS(SR), UA; Caucasus. Northern Africa: MA. Northern Asia: KS, TM. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, RL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1975c, 1979: 323-324).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: hollow stems (Phragmites) with a cavity diameter of 4-10mm, mostly 6-7mm; abandoned cells of nests of other aculeates (Sceliphron destillatorium, Megachile ericetorum, Osmia bicornis). Nests contain 1-9, mostly 1-2 brood cells. In linear cavities, the brood cells are often separated by large gaps, these gaps are sometimes divided up by additional partitions and most of the cells have a solid bottom partition, all suggesting that the typical natural nesting sites of O. dimidiata are abandoned single cells in nests of other aculeates rather than linear cavities. Nesting material: Masticated leaves (e.g. from Lawsonia). Life cycle: The species overwinters as imago. Cleptoparasites: Sapyga quinquepunctata, Stelis phaeoptera. (Alfken, 1934; Ivanov et al., 2013)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae; all pollen samples analysed so far consist of pollen of Carduoideae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 22 pollen samples from 19 different localities and on field observations), suggesting that species of Carduoideae are by far the main or even the exclusive pollen hosts. Flower records: Centaurea, Inula, Onopordum (Ivanov et al., 2013).

subspecies assomatosana Le Goff, 2005

2005 Osmia (Helicosmia) dimidiata assomatosana Le Goff, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 110: 437. Type material: Holotype f, “Assomatos” [Greece: Crete], MNHN (Paris); paratypes ff.

Distribution-Europe: GR(Cr).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

subspecies dimidiata Morawitz, 1870

1870 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: AL, BG,E, F, GR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), MK, P, RUS(SR), UA; Caucasus. Northern Africa: MA. Northern Asia: TM. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, RL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Osmia (Helicosmia) diomedia Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) diomedia Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 11. Type material: Holotype f, “südl. Beytüssebap in 1300 m/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratype m.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) dlabolae Tkalcu, 1978

1978 Osmia (Diceratosmia) dlabolae Tkalcu, Casopis Slezskeho Muzea Opava (A), 27: 162. Type material: Holotype f, “C. Anat. Darende, 1250 m” [Turkey], NMPC (Prague).-Combination Osmia (Caerulosmia) dlabolae Tkalcu in Zanden (1988b: 123). Combination Osmia (Helicosmia) dlabolae Tkalcu in Warncke (1992b: 917).

Distribution-Europe: GR?. Southwestern Asia: IL?, SYR?, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1991a). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) dusmeti Zanden, 1998

1998 Osmia (Chalcosmia) dusmeti Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 30: 525. Type material: Holotype f, “Canizal” [Spain], BMNH (London).

Distribution-Europe: E.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) gutturalis Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) gutturalis Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 21. Type material: Holotype f, “südl. Varegös im Mt. Sat in 2000 m/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.

1992 Osmia (Chalcosmia) milenae Tkalcu, Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae (Praha), 56: 225. Type material: Holotype m, “Mus” [Turkey], EMET (Erzurum); paratypes mm.-New synonymy based on type material (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, IR,TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: The only two pollen samples available so far (from the same locality) consist of pollen of Moluccella laevis (Lamiaceae) (A. Müller, unpublished). The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on clypeus and frons composed of curved bristles, which are most probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and possibly also Antirrhineae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) haemorrhoa Morawitz, 1886

1886 Osmia haemorrhoa Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 20: 216. Type material: Holotype m, “Keria-Gebirge 9000′” [China], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) haemorrhoa Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 124).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC(NW), RC(WP). Extralimital: Oriental (India).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Tkalcu (1995: 142-143); Wu (2006). Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) heliaca Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) heliaca Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 16. Type material: Holotype f, “südl. Varegös im Mt. Sat in 2000 m/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementar Pérez y or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) heteracantha rez, 1895

1895 Osmia heteracantha Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 12. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1996b: 884), “Téniet” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Helicosmia) sogdiana heteracantha in Warncke (1988a: 25), rejected by Zanden (1996b: 884). Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) heteracantha Pérez in Zanden (1988b: 124).

1908 Osmia tarfensis Saunders, Transactions of the Entomological Society London, 1908: 246. Type material: Syntypes ff, “Le Tarf” [Algeria], BMNH (London).-Synonymy with Osmia cinctella Dours in Tkalcu (1977b: 232), rejected by Warncke (1988a: 23). Synonymy with Osmia niveibarbis Pérez, 1902 in Warncke (1988a: 23).

1988 Osmia ardeola Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 19 [as Osmia aredeola, rejected by Blank and Kraus (1994: 732)]. Type material: Holotype f, “Alcoutin/Algarve” [Portugal], OLML (Linz); paratypes ff.-Synonymy in Zanden (1996b: 884).

Distribution-Europe: E, I, I(Si), P. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Warncke (1988a).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in the ground; abandoned cells in exposed nests of Hoplitis. Nesting material: Nest plug, cell partitions and cell walls entirely built from leaf pulp, sometimes mixed with chewed petals. (C. Sedivy, C. Praz and A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Probably mesolectic on Fabaceae, Boraginaceae (Echium) and Lamiaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 6 pollen samples from 4 different localities and the pollen content of 6 brood cells of two nests from the same locality). The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on clypeus and frons composed of curved bristles, which are most probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and possibly Antirrhineae as well (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) indigotea Morawitz, 1875

1875 Osmia indigotea Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 86. Type material: m(m), “prope Samarkand” [Uzbekistan].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) indigotea Morawitz in Tkalcu (1969a: 334).

Distribution-Northern Asia: TM, UZ. Southwestern Asia: AFG, IRQ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Engel (2006: 126-127); Morawitz (1880: 382); Radoszkowski (1887a: 291); Tkalcu (1969a: 334-35); Warncke (1992b: 918).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) jacoti Cockerell, 1929

1929 Osmia (Chalcosmia) jacoti Cockerell, The Entomologist (London), 62: 205. Type material: Syntypes ff, “Tsinan” [China], USNM (Washington).

1973 Osmia (Chalcosmia) imaii Hirashima, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 18: 64. Type material: Holotype f, “Himeji City, Hyogo Pref.” [Japan], KUEC (Fukuoka); paratypes mm, ff.-Synonymy in Wu (2006: 60).

Distribution-Northern Asia: J, RC, RC(NO), ROK.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect borings in dead wood; hollow stems (e.g. Phragmites, bamboo, straw tubes). Nesting material: Cell partitions and plug are made of chewed leaves. (Hirashima, 1973; Maeta, 1978)

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) kirgisiana Zanden, 1994

1994 Osmia (Chalcosmia) kirgisiana Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 26: 1120. Type material: Holotype f, “Issyk-Kub, M. Azhargyvuak” [Kyrgyzstan], ZMUM (Moscow); paratypes ff.

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, KZ, UZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) labialis Pérez, 1879

1879 Osmia labialis Pérez, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 33: 182. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975c: 311), “Hautes et Basses-Pyrénées” [France], MNHN (Paris).- Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) labialis Pérez in Tkalcu (1975c: 311).-Synonymy with Osmia leaiana (Kirby) in Benoist (1931: 29), rejected by Tkalcu (1975c: 311). Synonymy with Osmia melanogaster Spinola in Warncke (1986: 74) and in Schwarz et al. (1996: 124), rejected by Rasmont et al. (1995: 51).

Distribution-Europe: A, BG, CH, D, E, F, FL, I, MK, P, SK. Northern Africa: TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Herrmann (2005); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1975c).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae (Amiet et al., 2004; Herrmann, 2010; Kraus, 2010; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 2 pollen samples from 2 different localities). Flower records: Carduus defloratus, Centaurea scabiosa (Herrmann, 2010; Kraus, 2010).

subspecies labialis Pérez, 1879

1879 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: A, CH, D, E, F, FL, I, P. Northern Africa: TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

subspecies tornensis Tkalcu, 1975

1975 Osmia (Chalcosmia) labialis tornensis Tkalcu, Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke, 39: 312. Type material: Holotype f, “Slowakischer Karst, Turna n. Bodvou, in der Nähe von ‘Sedielko’, ca. 400 m” [Slovakia], Tkalcu Collection (Praha); paratypes mm, ff.-Synonymy with Osmia melanogaster Spinola in Warncke (1988a: 29).

Distribution-Europe: A, BG, MK,SK.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Osmia (Helicosmia) laticella Zanden, 1986

1899 Osmia laticepsFriese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 64. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Osmia laticeps Thomson, 1872]. Type material: Holotype f, “Tourrah” [Egypt], ZMHB (Berlin).

1986 Osmia (Diceratosmia) laticella Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 24: 73. NOMEN NOVUM with same type specimen for preoccupied Osmia laticeps Friese, 1899 [not Osmia laticeps Thomson, 1872].-Combination Osmia (Caerulosmia) laticella Zanden in Zanden (1988b: 123).

Distribution-Northern Africa: ET. Southwestern Asia: IL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Mavromoustakis (1956a: 857); Zanden (1991a).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Mesolectic on Brassicaceae and Fabaceae (e.g., Genisteae) with a distinct preference for Brassicaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 24 pollen samples from 10 different localities). Flower records: Zilla spinosa.

Osmia (Helicosmia) lazulina Benoist, 1928

1928 Osmia lazulina Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 1928: 108. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1970: 8), “Sfax” [Tunisia], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) lazulina Benoist in Tkalcu (1970: 8).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, LAR, MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: IL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1970: 8-9); Warncke (1988a).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: The only three pollen sample available so far (from two different localities) consist of pollen of Fabaceae and Antirrhineae (A. Müller, unpublished). The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on clypeus and frons composed of curved bristles, which are probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of e.g. Lamiaceae or Antirrhineae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) leaiana (Kirby, 1802)

1785 Apis hirta Geoffroy, in: Fourcroy, Entomologia Parisiensis, vol. 2, p. 444. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Apis hirta Schrank, 1781]. Type material: m(m), [France].

1802 Apis leaiana Kirby, Monographia Apum Angliae, vol. 2, p. 263. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975c: 309), [United Kingdom], BMNH (London).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) leaiana (Kirby) in Tkalcu (1975c: 309).-Synonymy with Osmia fulviventris (Panzer) in Dalla Torre (1896: 395). Synonymy with Osmia ventralis (Panzer) in Warncke (1988a: 30), rejected by Özbek and Zanden (1992a: 27) and by Schwarz et al. (1996: 123).

1853 Osmia atra Schenck, Jahrbücher des Vereins für Naturkunde im Herzogthum Nassau, 9: 182. Type material: f(f), [Germany].-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1975c: 309).

1869 Osmia confusa Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 6: 38. Type material: f(f), [Russia], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) confusa Morawitz in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 20 [886]).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1975c: 309).

1870 Osmia Solskyi Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 7: 317. Type material: f(f), [Russia].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) solskyi Morawitz in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 20 [886]).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1975c: 309).

1872 Osmia truncatula Thomson, Skandinaviens Hymenoptera, vol. 2, p. 239. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975c: 311), “Lund” [Sweden], MZLU (Lund).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) leaiana truncatula Thomson in Tkalcu (1975c: 311).-Synonymy with Osmia ventralis (Panzer) in Warncke (1988a: 30).

1879 Osmia bidens Pérez, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 33: 181. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Hautes et Basses-Pyrénées, jusqu’à une altitude de 11 à 1200 m” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1975c: 309).

1924 Osmia forsii Alfken, Notulae Entomologicae (Helsinki), 4: 37. Type material: Holotype f, “Lojo (Südfinnland)” [Finland], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy with Osmia ventralis (Panzer) in Peters (1970b: 196).

Distribution-Europe: A, AND, ARM, B, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, F, FIN, FL, GB, GE, GR, H, HR, I, I(Si), L, LT, LV, N, NL, MK, P, PL, RO, RUS, S, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN. Northern Asia: KZ. Southwestern Asia: IR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Radoszkowski (1887a: 289-290); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1975c).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood and drilled borings in wooden blocks; hollow stems (e.g. Phragmites) and drilled borings in pithy stems; holes in stones and walls. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of chewed leaves (e.g. from Rosa). (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Friese, 1923; Grünwaldt, 1939; Malyshev, 1937; Müller et al., 1997; Romasenko, 1980; Westrich, 1989; G. Else, unpublished manuscript)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae; host plants include members of the Carduoideae and the Cichorioideae and rarely of the Asteroideae as well (Amiet et al., 2004; Müller et al., 2007; Raw, 1974; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 14 pollen samples from 11 different localities, on the pollen content of 5 brood cells from 2 nests and on field observations).

subspecies leaiana (Kirby, 1802)

1802 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: A, AND, ARM, B, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, F, FIN, FL, GB, GE, GR, H, I, I(Si), L, LV, N, NL, MK, P, PL, RO, RUS, S, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Africa: DZ, TN. Northern Asia:KZ. Southwestern Asia: IR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

subspecies schachti Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) ventralis schachti Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 31. Type material: Holotype f, “Oukaimeden in 2500 m/Hoher Atlas” [Morocco], OLML (Linz); paratypes ff.

Distribution-Northern Africa: MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) livida Tkalcu, 1978

1978 Osmia (Chalcosmia) livida Tkalcu, Casopis Slezskeho Muzea Opava (A), 27: 163. Type material: Holotype f, “Bayburt” [Turkey], EMET (Erzurum); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: The only pollen sample available so far consists of pollen of Hedysareae (Fabaceae) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) maracandica Morawitz, 1894

1875 Osmia robusta Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 90. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Heriades robustusNylander, 1848]. Type material: f(f), “prope Samarkand” [Uzbekistan], ZMUM (Moscow).

1894 Osmia maracandica Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 28: 28. NOMEN NOVUM with same type specimen for preoccupied Osmia robusta Morawitz, 1875 [not Heriades robustus Nylander, 1848].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) maracandica Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 125).

Distribution-Northern Asia: UZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) mediana Engel, 2006

2006 Osmia (Helicosmia) mediana Engel, Acta Entomologica Slovenica, 14: 124. Type material: Holotype m, “Tehran Province, Karaj, ca. 1200 m” [Iran], SEMC (Lawrence); paratype f.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) melanogaster Spinola, 1808

1808 Osmia melanogaster Spinola, Insectorum Liguriae, vol. 2, p. 63. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975: 314), [Italy], MSDB (Torino).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) melanogaster Spinola in Tkalcu (1975c: 314). Combination Osmia (Melanosmia) melanogaster Spinola in Wu (2006: 73).

1872 Osmia aterrima Morawitz, Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 22: 357. Type material: f(f), “Südtirol” [Italy].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) aterrima Morawitz in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 20 [886]).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1975c: 314).

1872 Osmia carniolica Morawitz, Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 22: 358. Type material: Holotype f, “Krain” [Slovenia], NMW (Wien).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia)melanogaster carniolica Morawitz in Zanden (1983: 134).-Synonymy in Warncke (1986: 73).

1876 Osmia incerta Radoszkowski, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 12: 113. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1991b: 353), “Egypt.” [Egypt], ZMHB (Berlin).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) incerta Radoszkowski in Zanden (1988b: 124).-Synonymy with Osmia (Helicosmia) notata (Fabricius) in Friese (1909: 126) and in Warncke (1988a: 26), rejected by Zanden (1991b: 353). Synonymy with Osmia melanogaster Spinola in Zanden (1991b: 353).

Distribution-Europe: A, ARM, BG, CZ, D, E, E(Ba), F, F(Co), GR, H, HR, I, I(Si), MK, P, RUS, SCG, SK, SLO, UA; Caucasus. Northern Africa: DZ, ET, LAR, MA, TN. Northern Asia: RC?. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR,JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931, as Osmia notata); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1975c); Wu (2006); Zanden (1983: 134).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: empty snail shells (e.g. Helix, Zonites) in the herb or in fissures of stone walls with several cells per shell; insect burrows in dead wood; hollow stems. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of chewed leaves (e.g. from Malva). (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Ferton, 1892; S. Werner, personal communication)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 55 pollen samples from 38 different localities and on field observations).

subspecies melanogaster Spinola, 1808

1808 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: A, ARM, BG, CZ, D, F, F(Co), GR, H, HR, I, MK, RUS, SCG, SK, SLO, UA; Caucasus. Northern Asia: RC. Southwestern Asia: CY, IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

subspecies subaenea Pérez, 1895

1895 Osmia subaenea Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 11. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975c: 315), [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) subaena Pérez in Tkalcu (1975c: 315). Combination Osmia (Helicosmia) melanogaster subaenea Pérez in Warncke (1988a: 29).

Distribution- Europe: E, E(Ba), I(Si), P. Northern Africa: DZ, ET, LAR, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1975a: 183, 1975c).

Osmia (Helicosmia) microdonta Cockerell, 1931

1931 Osmia (Chalcosmia) microdonta Cockerell, American Museum Novitates, 466: 1. Type material: Holotype m, “Zô-Sè” [China], AMNH (New York).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC(CE).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) mirhiji Mavromoustakis, 1957

1957 Osmia (Chalcosmia) mirhiji Mavromoustakis, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. 12, 9: 858. Type material: Holotype f, “Hammana” [Lebanon], DAAN (Nicosia); paratypes m, f.-Combination Metallinella mirhiji (Mavromoustakis) in Zanden (1988b: 123), rejected by Zanden (1992b: 69).-Synonymy with Osmia brevicornis leucogastra Morawitz in Warncke (1991d: 284), rejected by Zanden (1992b: 69).

Distribution- Europe: GR(Lesbos). Southwestern Asia: IL, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1992b: 69).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) nasoproducta Ferton, 1909

1909 Osmia nasoproducta Ferton, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 78: 406. Type material: Holotype f, “Bonifacio” [France: Corsica], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Aceratosmia) nasoproducta Ferton in Zanden (1985: 69). Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) nasoproducta Ferton in Zanden (1994a: 171).

1950 Osmia proboscidea Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 55: 101. Type material: Holotype f, “Moyen Atlas, Ifrane” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Aceratosmia) proboscidea Benoist in Zanden (1985: 69).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 35).

Distribution-Europe: E, F, F(Co), I(Sa), P. Northern Africa: MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931); Zanden (1985: 69); Le Goff (2017a).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Mesolectic on Cistaceae and Asteraceae (Carduoideae, Cichorioideae) with a distinct preference for Cistus. (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 9 pollen samples from 7 different localities and on field observations by I. Raemakers and A. Müller). Flower records: Cistus ladanifer (Le Goff, 2017a; label records).

Osmia (Helicosmia) niveata (Fabricius, 1804)

1798 Apis fulviventris Panzer, Faunae Insectorum Germanicae, 56: 18. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Apis fulviventris Scopoli, 1763]. Type material: f(f), [Germany]. Type species of Chalcosmia Schmiedeknecht.-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) fulviventris (Panzer) in Tkalcu (1974b: 336).

1804 Anthophora niveata Fabricius, Systema Piezatorum, p. 377. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1970: 4), “Habitat in Algier Dom. de Rehbinder” [Algeria], ZMUC (Copenhagen).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) fulviventris niveata (Fabricius) in Tkalcu (1970: 3).

1809 Osmia fulvicornis Latreille, Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum, vol. 4, p. 164. Spelling Mistake in place of Osmia fulviventris (Panzer) in Dalla Torre (1896: 396).

1879 Osmia minuta Bramson, Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 54: 292. Type material: Holotype m, “Jekaterinoslaw” [Ukraine].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) minuta Bramson in Zanden (1988b: 125). -Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 33).

1886 Osmia Sieversi Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 20: 74. Type material: f(f), “Borshom” [Georgia], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) sieversi Morawitz in Tkalcu (1975c: 307). Combination Osmia (Helicosmia) fulviventris sieversi Morawitz in Warncke (1988a: 33).-Synonymy in Schwarz et al. (1996: 125).

1887 Osmia carneiventris Dours, in: Radoszkowski, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 21: 286. Type material: Holotype f, “Crimée” [Ukraine], ISZP (Krakow).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1970: 3).

1914 Osmia fulviventris albiscopa Alfken, Mémoires de la Société Entomologique Belgique, 22: 202. Type material: Holotype f, “Alger” [Algeria], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1970: 3).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL, AZ, B, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, E(Ba), F, F(Co), GB, GE, GR, H, HR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), L, LT, MK, NL, P, P(Az), P(Ma), PL, RO, RUS, S, SCG, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Africa: DZ,E(Ca), ET, LAR, MA,P(Ma), TN. Northern Asia: RC?; Turkestan. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, JOR, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Peters (1975: 54, 55); Radoszkowski (1887a: 290); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1975a: 183, 1975c); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood and drilled borings in wooden blocks; hollow stems (e.g. Arundo) and drilled borings in pithy stems; cavities and holes in rocks, stones or walls; hole in a large key; glass tubes. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of chewed leaves (e.g. from Phlomis, Malva). (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Brechtel, 1986; Ferton, 1892; Friese, 1923; Stoeckhert, 1933; Vicens, Bosch and Blas, 1993; Westrich, 1989; G. Le Goff, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae with a distinct preference for Carduoideae (Amiet et al., 2004; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 47 pollen samples from 32 different localities).

Osmia (Helicosmia) ocularis Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) ocularis Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 7. Type material: Holotype f, “Altin Daglari (= Suvari-Halil-Pass)/Hakkari in 2600-3000 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) ocularis Warncke in Zanden (1994b: 1115).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) onocrotala Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) onocrotala Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 32. Type material: Holotype f, “20 km W Sarikamis in 2200 m/Kars” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) onocrotala Warncke in Zanden (1996a: 389).

Distribution-Europe: ARM. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) orientalis Benoist, 1929

1929 Osmia orientalis Benoist, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 98: 142. Type material: Holotype f, “Nippon moyen: Kofou” [Japan], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) orientalis Benoist in Zanden (1985: 60).

Distribution-Northern Asia: J, RUS(FS).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Hirashima (1973: 66); Romankova (1984; 1995); Yasumatsu and Hirashima (1950).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: only empty snail shells (e.g. Euhadra, Satsuma) with up to 10 cells per shell. Nesting material: The cell partitions, which are not fully closed with the exception of the outermost partition, are made of chewed leaves (e.g. from Rosa). The nest plug is lacking, the last cell partition is complete and thickened. (Kandori et al., 2010; Maeta, 1978)

Flower preferences: Polylectic (Quest, 2009) with a distinct preference for Galeopsis ladanum (Lamiaceae) (T. Romankova, personal communication). The females possess a specialized pilosity on the clypeus, which is most probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) palmae Tkalcu, 2001

2001 Osmia (Chalcosmia) palmae Tkalcu, Bulletin de la Société entomologique de Mulhouse, 57: 29. Type material: Holotype f, “La Palma Herradura Pesti” [Spain: Canary Islands], Tkalcu Collection (Praha); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Northern Africa: E(Ca).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) palmyrae Zanden, 1998

1998 Osmia (Chalcosmia) palmyrae Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 30: 525. Type material: Holotype m, “Palmyra, 400 m” [Syria], RMNH (Leiden); paratype m.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: SYR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) pennata Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) pennata Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 13. Type material: Holotype m, “Sertavul/Icel, 1400 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m, f.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) peregrina Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) peregrina Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 12. Type material: Holotype m, “Birecik/Urfa” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratype f.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) pieli Cockerell, 1931

1931 Osmia (Chalcosmia) pieli Cockerell, American Museum Novitates, 466: 2. Type material: Holotype f, “Zô-Sè” [China], AMNH (New York).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC(CE).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Hirashima (1973: 66); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) satoi Yasumatsu & Hirashima, 1950

1950 Osmia (Cryptosmia) satoi Yasumatsu & Hirashima, Mushi (Fukuoka), 24: 14. Type material: Holotype f, “Suigen, Central Korea” [South Korea], KUEC (Fukuoka). Type species of Cryptosmia Yasumatsu & Hirashima.

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC, ROK.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) saxatilis Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) saxatilis Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 5. Type material: Holotype f, “20 km W Karakurt im Arastal, 1600 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen hosts recorded so far include Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Echium (Boraginaceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 17 pollen samples from 6 different localities). The females possess curved bristles on clypeus and frons, which are most probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and possibly Antirrhineae as well (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) shaanxiensis Wu, 2004

2004 Osmia shaanxiensis Wu, Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 29: 533. Type material: Holotype f, “Shaanxi, Hanzhong Dongzhi (33°N, 107°E)” [China], IZCAS (Beijing).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC(NO).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) simplex Morawitz, 1875

1875 Osmia simplex Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 83. Type material: f(f), “in valle Sarafschan” [Tajikistan].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) simplex Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 125).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ, TM, UZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Morawitz (1894: 26-27).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. The only two pollen samples available so far consist of pollen of Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) sponsa Nurse, 1904

1904 Osmia sponsa Nurse, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 15: 573. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1969a: 333), “Quetta” [Pakistan], BMNH (London); paralectotype m.-Combination Osmia (Diceratosmia) sponsa Nurse in Tkalcu (1969a: 333). Combination Osmia (Caerulosmia) sponsa Nurse in Zanden (1988b: 124).

Distribution-Northern Asia: TM, UZ. Southwestern Asia: PAK. Extralimital: Oriental (India).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1969a: 334-335); Zanden (1991a).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) subcornuta Morawitz, 1875

1875 Osmia subcornuta Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 79. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1986: 73), “Mundanay, in valle Sarafschan” [Tajikistan], ZMUM (Moscow).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) subcornuta Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 125).

1891 Osmia rubicola Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 17: 257. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1986: 73), “Triest” [Italy], “Fiume” [Croatia], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype m.-Synonymy in Zanden (1986: 73).

Distribution-Europe: ARM, BG, GR, GR(Cr), HR, I, MK. Northern Asia: KS, TJ, TM, UZ. Southwestern Asia: IL, IR, JOR, RL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Warncke (1988a).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: hollow stems (e.g. Rubus, Echium). Nesting material: Cell partitions are made of chewed leaves. (Friese, 1891, 1923; Graeffe, 1902; Marikovskaya, 1995)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a preference for Fabaceae; other pollen sources include Echium (Boraginaceae), Lamiaceae and Antirrhineae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 24 pollen samples from 16 different localities). The females possess curved bristles on the clypeus, which are most probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and Antirrhineae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) subtersa Cockerell, 1930

1930 Osmia (Chalcosmia) subtersa Cockerell, The Entomologist (London), 63: 83. Type material: Syntypes mm, “Tsinan” [China].

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC(NO).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006). Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Helicosmia) torquata Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Helicosmia) torquata Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 8. Type material: Holotype f, “Suvari-Halil-Pass in 2800 m/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

aurulenta species group

Osmia (Helicosmia) aurulenta (Panzer, 1799)

1799 Apis aurulenta Panzer, Faunae Insectorum Germanicae, 63: 22. Type material: f(f), “Habitat Viennae Austr.” [Austria]. Type species of Helicosmia Thomson.-Combination Osmia tunensis aurulenta (Panzer) in Warncke (1988a: 10), rejected by Schwarz et al. (1996: 121).

1801 Apis haematoda Panzer, Faunae Insectorum Germanicae, 81: 20. Type material: m(m), [Germany].-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1974b: 337).

1841 Osmia marginella Lepeletier, Histoire Naturelle des Insectes, Hyménoptères, vol. 2, p. 320 [not seen]. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975a: 176), “Département des Landes, environs de Paris” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1974b: 337).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL, AND, ARM, B, BG, BIH, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, E(Ba), F, F(Co), FL, GB, GE, GR, H, HR, I, I(Sa), IRL, L, LT, MK, N, NL, P, PL, RO, RUS(NR), S, SCG, SK, SLO, UA. Southwestern Asia: IR, RL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Alfken (1914: 198-199); Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Móczár (1958); Radoszkowski (1887a: 291); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1970: 10); Warncke (1988a).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: empty snail shells of medium to large size (e.g. Arianta, Cepaea, Crepidula, Helix, fossil Paludina, rarely Helicella) with up to 17, but mostly 4-5 cells. Reports that females nest in dead wood and perpendicular sand banks (Smith, 1844), burrows in the ground (Saunders, 1896) or nest in Rubus stems (Fabr in Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001) or in stone crevices (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001) need confirmation. Nesting material: Cell partitions and plug made of chewed leaves (e.g. from Fragaria, Helianthemum, Glaucium, Sanguisorba, Ononis, Salix). In large shells, the cells are sometimes arranged side by side with the cell walls partially consisting of leaf pulp. The shell surface is plastered with patches of leaf pulp. After nest closure, the shell is neither turned nor moved. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Bellmann, 1981; Benoist, 1931; Bonelli, 1971; Ferton, 1892; Friese, 1923; Maréchal, 1926; Müller et al., 1997; O’Toole and Raw, 1991; Saunders, 1896; Smith, 1844; Stoeckhert, 1933;  Westrich, 1989;  G. Else, unpublished manuscript; G. Le Goff, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a preference for Fabaceae (e.g. Chameaspartium, Genista, Hippocrepis, Lathyrus, Lotus, Lupinus, Medicago, Melilotus, Onobrychis, Ononis, Tetragonolobus, Trifolium, Vicia) and Lamiaceae (e.g. Ajuga, Glechoma, Lamium, Salvia, Stachys, Teucrium); other pollen sources include Antirrhineae, Cistaceae (e.g. Helianthemum), Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium) and Polygalaceae (Westrich, 1989; Müller, 1996b; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 47 pollen samples from 36 different localities and on field observations). Westrich (1989) lists Asteraceae and Plantago (Plantaginaceae) as additional pollen hosts. The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on the clypeus composed of curved bristles, which are used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and Antirrhineae (Müller, 1996b).

Osmia (Helicosmia) tunensis (Fabricius, 1787)

1787 Apis tunensis Fabricius, Mantissa Insectorum, vol. 1, p. 304. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1970: 10), “Habitat in Barbariae Tunis” [Tunisia], ZMUC (Copenhagen).-Combination Osmia (Osmia) tunensis (Fabricius) in Friese (1911b: 87).

1790 Apis tunetana Gmelin, Caroli a Linné systema naturae […], edn. 13, vol. 1, p. 2773 [not seen].-Synonymy in Dalla Torre (1896: 413).

1873 Osmia pseudo-aurulenta Dours, Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliqué, ser. 3, 1: 294. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Algérie” [Algeria], Dours Collection, presumed destroyed (Zanden 1990: 52).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 9) and in Zanden (1988b: 125).

1894 Osmia aurulenta meridionalis Gribodo, Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana, 26: 99. Type material: Syntypes ff, “Algeria” [Algeria].-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 9).

1899 Osmia dissimilis Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 63. Type material: Holotype m, “Algerien” [Algeria], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy with Osmia pseudoaurulenta Dours in Alfken (1914: 198). Synonymy with Osmia tunensis (Fabricius) in Alfken (1914: 198).

Distribution-Europe: E?, I(Si), M, P?. Northern Africa: DZ, ET, LAR, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Alfken (1914: 198-199); Ducke (1900); Tkalcu (1970: 10); Warncke (1988a).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: empty snail shells (e.g. Helix). Nesting material: Unknown. (Alfken, 1914)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen hosts recorded so far are Fabaceae, Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium) and Lamiaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 5 pollen samples from 3 different localities). The females are equipped with a specialized pilosity on the clypeus composed of curved bristles, which are probably used to comb pollen from the nototribic anthers of Lamiaceae and Antirrhineae (Müller, 1996b).

latreillei species group

Osmia (Helicosmia) latreillei (Spinola, 1806)

1806 Megachile latreillii Spinola, Insectorum Liguriae, vol. 1, p. 31. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1983: 132), [Italy], MSDB (Torino).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) latreillei (Spinola) in Tkalcu (1975a: 184).

1811 Osmia nasidens Latreille, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Histoire Naturelle, Insectes, vol. 8, p. 578. Type material: Neotype f, by designation of Zanden (1988a: 60), “Nizza” [France], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) nasidens Latreille in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 96).-Synonymy in Warncke (1992b: 918).

1869 Osmia quadricornis Kriechbaumer, Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 19: 600. Type material: f(f), “Insel Tinos” [Greece].-Synonymy in Dalla Torre (1869: 399).

1892 Osmia Friesei Verhoeff, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 18: 289. Type material: m(m), “Spalato” [Croatia].-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 10).

Distribution-Europe: CH, E, E(Ba), F, F(Co), GR, GR(Cr), HR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), M, MK, P. Northern Africa: DZ, E(Ca), ET, LAR, MA, P(Ma), TN. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, JOR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Peters (1975: 54-55); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Warncke (1988a); Zanden (1988a: 60, 1991c: 168-169).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood and drilled borings in wooden blocks; hollow stems (e.g. Arundo, Phragmites); insect burrows in the soil (e.g. from Proxylocopa, Anthophora). Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of chewed leaves (e.g. from Lavathera). The nest plug occasionally consists of several walls of leaf pulp, sometimes particles (e.g. pieces of grass blades) are glued to its outer surface. Krombein (1969) states that partitions and plug are usually made of masticated leaf pulp, but that one plug had a layer of mud sandwiched between two layers of leaf pulp, and that another plug had some thin interspersed layers of wood-pulp fragments from the sides of the boring and the outer end plastered with a thin layer of mud. These last observations are probably wrong and concern other species than O. latreillei, which is supported by the list of pollen sources given which do not correspond to the normal host plants of O. latreillei. (Ferton, 1905; Krombein, 1969; O’Toole and Raw, 1991; Vicens, Bosch and Blas, 1993; Wafa and El-Berry, 1971; G. Le Goff, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae; host plants include members of the Cichorioideae, the Carduoideae and the Asteroideae (Amiet et al., 2004; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 49 pollen samples from 32 different localities and on field observations).

subspecies iberoafricana Peters, 1975

1975 Osmia latreillei iberoafricana Peters, Senckenbergiana Biologica (Frankfurt), 56: 49. Type material: Holotype f, “Almeria: Punta Entinas” [Spain], SMFD (Frankfurt); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Europe: E, E(Ba), F(Co), I(Sa), I(Si), M, P. Northern Africa: DZ, E(Ca), ET, LAR, MA, P(Ma), TN. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, JOR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1975a: 184); Zanden (1983: 132).

subspecies latreillei (Spinola, 1806)

1806 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: CH, F, F(Co), GR, GR (Cr), HR, I, I(Sa), MK. Northern Africa: E(Ca).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Peters (1975: 48-50); Tkalcu (1975a: 184).

Osmia (Helicosmia) madeirensis Zanden, 1991

1991 Osmia (Chalcosmia) madeirensis Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 28: 168. Type material: Holotype f, “Cenigel” [Portugal: Madeira]; paratypes m, ff.

Distribution-Northern Africa: P(Ma).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

niveocincta species group

Osmia (Helicosmia) cinctella Dours, 1873

1873 Osmia cinctella Dours, Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliqué, ser. 3, 1: 296. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f) “Iles de l’Archipel grec” [Greece], “Algérie” [Algeria], presumed lost (Tkalcu, 1977b: 232; Zanden 1990: 52).-Combination Osmia (Helicosmia) sogdiana cinctella Dours in Warncke (1988a: 25). Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) cinctella Dours in Zanden (1988b: 124).

Distribution-Europe: GR, GR(Cr); E. Northern Africa: DZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae; all pollen samples available so far consist of pollen of Carduoideae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 17 pollen samples from 8 different localities).

Osmia (Helicosmia) dives Mocsary, 1877

1877 Osmia dives Mocsary, Természetrajzi Füzetek, 1: 232. Type material: f(f), [Hungary].-Combination Osmia (Helicosmia) sogdiana dives Mocsary in Warncke (1988a: 24). Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) dives Mocsary in Zanden (1988b: 124).

1890 Osmia Medanae Magretti, Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 9: 541. Type material: Holotype f, “dintorni di Damasco” [Syria].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) medanae Magretti in Zanden (1988b: 125).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 24).

1902 Osmia subintegra Pérez, Procès-verbaux de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 57: 65. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Warncke (1988a: 24), “Ramleh” [Palestine], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) subintegra Pérez in Zanden (1988b: 125).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 24).

1934 Osmia hierosolomita Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 39: 160. Type material: Holotype m, “Asie mineure: Jérusalem” [Israel], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy with Osmia sogdiana Morawitz in in Tkalcu (1969a: 335) and in Zanden (1985: 67). Synonymy with Osmia sogdiana dives Mocsary in Warncke (1988a: 24).

Distribution-Europe: BG, GR, GR(Cr, Aegean islands), HNorthern Africa: ET?. Northern Asia: KS, UZ. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Móczár (1958); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1975a: 184); Zanden (1983: 134).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities in the ground, in general 4-8 brood cells per nest, which are linearly arranged or form clusters depending on the form of the cavity. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built of leaf pulp. The entrance of the nest burrow (diameter: 8-9mm) is closed by a plug of leaf pulp.(Mavromoustakis, 1948c;  Pashina, 1948, 1971; Popov, 1967a)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 36 pollen samples from 23 different localities).

Osmia (Helicosmia) frieseana Ducke, 1899

1899 Osmia frieseana Ducke, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 213. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Tkalcu (1975a: 184), “Algier” [Algeria], ZMHB (Berlin).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) frieseana Ducke in Tkalcu (1975a: 184).-Synonymy with Osmia sogdiana heteracantha Pérez in Warncke (1988a: 25), rejected by Zanden (1996b: 884).

Distribution-Europe: E, M, I(Sa). Northern Africa: DZ, ET?, LAR, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Tkalcu (1975a: 184); Zanden (1983: 134).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae; all pollen samples available so far consist of pollen of Carduoideae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 15 pollen samples from 5 different localities and on field observations).

Osmia (Helicosmia) niveocincta Pérez, 1879

1879 Osmia niveocincta Pérez, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 33: 184. Type material: f(f), “Hautes-Pyrénées” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Helicosmia) sogdiana niveocincta Pérez in Warncke (1988a: 25). Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) niveocincta Pérez in Zanden (1985: 69).

1895 Osmia violascens Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 12. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Warncke (1988a: 25), “Balearen” [Spain], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) violascens Pérez in Zanden (1988b: 125).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 25).

Distribution-Europe: E, E(Ba), F, GR, GR(Aegean Islands), I, I(Sa), P. Northern Africa: DZ, MA. Southwestern Asia: IL?.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931); Zanden (1985: 69). Male described by Alfken (1942: 213) belongs to another species according to Zanden (1985: 69).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae; all pollen samples available so far consist of pollen of Carduoideae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 10 pollen samples from 7 different localities and on field observations).

Osmia (Helicosmia) prasina Morawitz, 1875

1875 Osmia prasina Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 80. Type material: m(m), “in valle Sarafschan” [Tajikistan].-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) prasina Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 125).-Synonymy with Osmia sogdiana Morawitz in Warncke (1988a: 23) rejected based on type material and original description (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ, TM.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: The only pollen sample available so far consists of pollen of Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Helicosmia) sogdiana Morawitz, 1875

1875 Osmia sogdiana Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 84. Type material: Holotype f, “in valle Sarafschan” [Tajikistan], ZMUM (Moscow).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) sogdiana Morawitz in Tkalcu (1969a: 335).

1902 Osmia Nassonowi Pérez, Procès-verbaux de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 57: 64. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1985: 428), “Transcaspie” [Turkestan], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) nassonowi Pérez in Zanden (1988b: 125).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 23).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ, TM, UZ. Southwestern Asia: AFG,IL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1969a: 336).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: abandoned burrows of Hoplitis grumi; drilled borings in wooden blocks with linearly arranged cells. Rarely, the females build their brood cells in burrows they excavate in loess scarps if preexisting cavities are lacking. Nesting material: The brood cells are entirely built of leaf pulp. The entrance of the nest burrow (diameter: 7mm and more) is closed by a plug of leaf pulp (3-7mm thick). (Marikovskaya, 1968, 1975; Marikovskaya and Shcherbakova, 1989)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae; all pollen samples available so far consist of pollen of Carduoideae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 9 pollen samples from 6 different localities).

signata species group

Osmia (Helicosmia) fasciata Latreille, 1811

1811 Osmia fasciataLatreille, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Histoire Naturelle, Insectes, vol. 8, p. 583. Type material: Holotype f, “Arabie” [Arabia], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) fasciata Latreille in Zanden (1988b: 124).

1875 Osmia atro-alba Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 90. Type material: Syntypes ff, “prope Katty-kurgan” [Turkestan], ZIN (St. Petersburg), ZMUM (Moscow).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) atroalba Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 124).-New synonymy based on type specimens and original description (A. Müller, unpublished).

1904 Osmia (Acanthosmia) sita Nurse, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 15: 574. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1969a: 337), “Quetta” [Pakistan], BMNH (London).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) sita Nurse in Tkalcu (1969a: 336).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 26).

1930 Osmia kuznetzovi Cockerell, The Entomologist (London), 63: 84. Type material: f(f), “Ak-Tasch Mountains, 50 kilom. N.E. of Tashkent” [Uzbekistan], BMNH (London).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) kuznetzovi Cockerell in Zanden (1988b: 124).-Synonymy in Warncke (1992b: 918).

1935 Osmia bucharica Popov, Trudy Tajikskoy Bazy Akademii Nauk SSSR, 5: 390. Type material: Holotype m, “Kulyab and Samarkand” [Tajikistan and Uzbekistan], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Synonymy with Osmia sita Nurse in Tkalcu (1969a: 336). Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 26).

Distribution-Northern Asia: TJ, TM, UZ; Turkestan. Southwestern Asia: AFG, IL, IR, JOR, OM, PAK, SYR, UAE; Arabia; TR. Extralimital: Oriental (India).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Benoist (1969: 243); Tkalcu (1969a: 338-339); Warncke (1988a).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities:burrows and brood cells of Amegilla spec. in a vertical slope of hard-packed sandy soil with several linearly arranged cells. Nesting material: Nest plug and cell walls made of chewed leaves. In contrast to the brood cells built inside the Amegilla cells, brood cells constructed within the Amegilla burrows were completely lined with a thin layer of chewed leaves. (C. Praz and C. Sedivy, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae with a distinct preference for Carduoideae, species of the Asteroideae are rarely exploited as well (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 26 pollen samples and the content of 2 brood cells from 12 different localities). Flower records: Centaurea (label record).

Osmia (Helicosmia) notata (Fabricius, 1804)

1804 Anthophora notata Fabricius, Systema Piezatorum, p. 376. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1970: 7), “Habitat Kiliae” [Kiel, Germany by mistake, see Tkalcu (1970: 7); Algeria according to Warncke, 1988a: 25], ZMUC (Copenhagen).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) notata (Fabricius) in Tkalcu (1969a: 338).

1874 Pseudosmia decemsignata Radoszkowski, Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 48: 159. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1970: 7), “Sétif” [Algeria], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1970: 6).

1885 Osmia (Chalcosmia) laterefasciata Costa, Bullettino della Società Entomolgica Italiana, 17: 246. Type material: f(f), “Sardegna” [Italy: Sardinia].-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 26).

Distribution-Europe: E, F(Co), I, I(Sa), I(Si), M, P; D,S. Northern Africa: DZ, ET, LAR, MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: IL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Alfken (1914: 202); Ducke (1900); Friese (1893: 354); Tkalcu (1969a: 338); Warncke (1988a).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities:linear cavity in a stone 30cm above ground with 2 cells; insect burrow in the ground; empty snail shells with up to 18 cells. Nesting material: Nest plug, cell partitions and (part of) cell walls made of chewed leaves. The plug of the nest in the stone cavity extended along the interior walls. In large snail shells, the cells are linearly arranged in the inner and narrower part, but arranged side by side in the outer and larger part, where the cell walls partially or entirely consist of leaf pulp; the shell surface is not plastered with patches of leaf pulp. (Ferton, 1914; C. Sedivy, C. Praz & A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae; host plants include members of the Carduoideae, Cichorioideae and Asteroideae (A. Müller, based on 69 pollen samples from 39 different localities and on field observations).

Osmia (Helicosmia) signata Erichson, 1835

1808 Osmia melanippa Spinola, Insectorum Liguriae, vol. 2, p. 66. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Habitat passim in agro Ligustico” [Italy].-Synonymy with Osmia caerulescens (Linnaeus) in Rasmont et al. (1995: 51). Synonymy with Osmia signata Erichson in Warncke (1988a: 27). See Warncke (1988a: 28) for the validity of the name Osmia signata Erichson over Osmia melanippa Spinola.

1835 Osmia signata Erichson, in: Waltl, Reise durch Tirol, Oberitalien und Piemont nach dem südlichen Spanien (Passau), vol. 2, p. 107. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1974b: 336), “Andalusien” [Spain], ZMHB (Berlin).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) signata Erichson in Tkalcu (1974b: 336).

1853 Osmia jucunda Smith, Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum, I: 139. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1974b: 336), “Albania” [Albania], BMNH (London).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1974b: 336).

1869 Osmia vidua Gerstaecker, Entomologische Zeitung (Stettin), 30: 345. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1974b: 336), “Auf Sicilien” [Italy: Sicily], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy with male of Osmia taurica Radoszkowski, 1887 in Friese (1909: 126), rejected by Ivanov et al. (2013). Synonymy in Alfken (1935b: 175).

1873 Osmia cincta Dours, Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliqué, ser. 3, 1: 295. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Iles de l’Archipel grec” [Greece], “Algérie” [Algeria], Dours Collection, presumed destroyed (Zanden 1990: 52).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 28).

1879 Osmia laticincta Pérez, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 33: 177. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Marseille” [France], “Aragon” [Spain], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Helicosmia) vidua laticincta Pérez in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 28 [894]). Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) signata laticincta Pérez in Zanden (1988b: 125).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 28).

1883 Osmia atriventris Costa, Atti dell’Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche (Napoli), ser. 2, 1: 95. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Osmia atriventris Cresson, 1864]. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1990: 53), “Samassi” [Italy], DEZA (Portici); paralectotype f.-Synonymy in Warncke (1988a: 28) and in Zanden (1988b: 125).

1895 Osmia costaniana Dalla Torre & Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 21: 70. NOMEN NOVUM with same type specimen for preoccupied Osmia atriventris Costa, 1883 [not Osmia atriventris Cresson, 1864].

Distribution-Europe: AL, E, E(Ba), F, F(Co), GR, GR(Cr), I, I(Sa), I(Si), P, UA. Northern Africa: DZ, ET, MA. Northern Asia: RC, TM. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Radoszkowski (1887a: 287); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: hollow stems (e.g. Arundo); abandoned cells of exposed nests of other aculeates (e.g. Sceliphron, Chalicodoma); insect burrows in the soil (e.g. from Anthophora); cavities and holes in rocks, stones, clay scarps, walls or between the plastic cover and the wooden wall of an old suitcase; cavities in the ceiling and in walls of a clay cave (unclear whether the females excavated the cavities in the clay or wether they used already existing cavities). Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of masticated plant material. In rock or other spacious cavities, the whole cells may be constructed with leaf pulp. Cells entirely constructed from leaf pulp were also found side by side or in a linear series in ceiling and wall cavities of an artificial clay cave with the nest surface partially open to the outside. (Ferton, 1897; Malyshev, 1937; Mavromoustakis, 1948c; Vereecken et al., 2010; G. Le Goff, personal observation; C. Sedivy and A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae; pollen hosts include members of the Carduoideae, the Cichorioideae and rarely the Asteroideae as well (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 60 pollen samples from 44 different localities and on field observations).

subspecies signata Erichson, 1835

1835 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: AL ,E, E(Ba), F, F(Co), GR, GR(Cr), I, I(Sa), I(Si), P, UA. Northern Africa: DZ, ET, MA. Northern Asia: RC, TM. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Radoszkowski (1887a: 287); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Wu (2006).

subspecies rhodia Tkalcu, 2005

2005 Osmia (Chalcosmia) signata rhodia Tkalcu, Bulletin de la Société entomologique de Mulhouse, 62: 63. Type material: Holotype f, “GR Rhodos Akra Vagia” [Greece], Tkalcu Collection (Praha); paratypes m, f.

Distribution-Europe: GR(Rhodos).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.