Genus Stenoheriades

Flowers of the Asteroideae (Asteraceae) are the exclusive pollen source of Stenoheriades asiaticus (Friese, 1921) and probably of the other Stenoheriades species as well. Foto A. Müller.

Biogeography and diversity

The genus Stenoheriades occurs in the Palaearctic, the Afrotropical and the Oriental region (Michener, 2007; Griswold, 2018). It contains 12 described species, 5 of which occur in the Palaearctic. At least 6 extra-Palaearctic are still undescribed (Michener, 2007).

Phylogeny and classification

Stenoheriades is a member of the Heriades group and sister to the genus Hofferia (Praz et al., 2008b). According to Griswold (1985), Stenoheriades is divisible into four species groups, which might deserve subgeneric rank.

Nesting biology

Nesting site and nesting material are unknown. However, several specimens of Stenoheriades maroccana and Stenoheriades eingeddica were observed at dead wood (Benoist, 1928f; C. Praz and C. Sedivy, personal observation), indicating that beetle burrows in dead wood are probably used as nesting site. The slender and elongate body of Stenoheriades is likely an adaptation for nesting in such narrow linear cavities. As all other genera of the Heriades group, whose nesting behaviour is known, use resin for nest construction, resin is probably the nesting material of Stenoheriades as well.

Flower preferences

Stenoheriades species have a strong affinity to Asteraceae as pollen hosts. The only three pollen loads of Stenoheriades maroccana analyzed so far contained pollen of the subfamily Cichorioideae, whereas the four other Palaearctic Stenoheriades species are probably all strictly specialized on the subfamily Asteroideae (Müller & Trunz, 2014).

Species accounts

coelostoma species group

Stenoheriades asiatica (Friese, 1921)

1921 Heriades asiaticus Friese, Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 87: 175. Type material: Syntypes mm, “Airan” [Turkey].-Combination Pseudoheriades (Stenoheriades) asiaticus (Friese) in Tkalcu (1984b: 1). Synonymy with Stenoheriades coelostoma (Benoist) in Griswold (1994a: 18), rejected by Müller & Trunz (2014).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller & Trunz (2014: 185).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteroideae (Asteraceae); one pollen load also contained pollen of Cichorioideae, suggesting that flowers of this subfamily might be exploited as well (Müller & Trunz, 2014).

Stenoheriades coelostoma (Benoist, 1935)

1935 Heriades coelostoma Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 40: 277. Type material: f(f), “Asie mineure: Taurus” [Turkey], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Pseudoheriades (Stenoheriades) coelostomus (Benoist) in Tkalcu (1984b: 1).

1984 Pseudoheriades (Stenoheriades) hofferi Tkalcu, Annotationes Zoologicae et Botanicae (Bratislava), 158: 2. Type material: Holotype m, “Bulgaria mer.-occ. Peju Javorov (im Struma-Tal)” [Bulgaria], Tkalcu Collection (Praha). Type species of Stenoheriades Tkalcu.-Synonymy in Müller & Trunz (2014).

Distribution-Europe: BG, GR, HR. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1984b: 5, as Stenoheriades asiatica); Müller & Trunz (2014: 185).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteroideae (Asteraceae) (Müller & Trunz, 2014). Flower records: Anthemis arvensis (label information).

Stenoheriades levantica Müller, 2014

2014 Stenoheriades levantica Müller, Zootaxa, 3765: 183. Type material: f, “Mt. Carmel, Mitla, 300m” [Israel], ETHZ (Zurich).

DistributionSouthwestern Asia: IL, JOR, RL, SYR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1955b: 334-335, as Stenoheriades coelostoma)

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteroideae (Asteraceae) (Müller & Trunz, 2014). Flower records: Anthemis arvensis (label information).

Stenoheriades maroccana (Benoist, 1928)

1928 Heriades maroccana Benoist, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc (Rabat), 8: 212. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Aïn Leuh” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris).

Distribution-Europe: E, I(Si). Northern Africa:MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller & Trunz (2014: 185).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Several females and males were observed at a wooden phone post in Morocco, suggesting that insect burrows in dead wood are used as nesting site. Nesting material: Unknown. (Benoist, 1928f)

Flower preferences: The only three pollen loads analyzed so far (from three localities) consisted of pollen of Cichorioideae (Asteraceae) (Müller & Trunz, 2014). Flower records: Sonchus, Calendula stellata (label information).

eingeddica species group

Stenoheriades eingeddica Griswold, 1994

1994 Stenoheriades eingeddicus Griswold, Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 67: 18. Type material: Holotype m, “Ejn Geddi Palestine” [Israel], DAAN (Nicosia); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, OM, Y.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller & Trunz (2014: 185).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Several individuals were observed flying around dead Acacia wood in the Negev desert, suggesting that insect burrows in dead wood are used as nesting site. Nesting material: Unknown. (C. Praz and C. Sedivy, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteroideae (Asteraceae). Flower records: Atractylis carduus (Griswold, 1994a), Anvillea garcinii and Pulicaria undulata (both label information).