Subgenus Protosmia

The subgenus Protosmia Ducke is confined to the Palaearctic region. It contains 11 described species. At least 2 Palaearctic species are still undescribed (A. Müller, unpublished).

Species accounts

Protosmia (Protosmia) exenterata (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia exenterata Pérez, in: Ferton, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 47: 213. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Bizerte” [Tunisia], “Téniet el Haad” [Algeria], “Sicile” [Italy: Sicily], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) exenterata Pérez in Friese (1911b: 70). Combination Protosmia (Rhodosmia) exenterata (Pérez) in Zanden (1988b: 127).

1895 Osmia octomaculata Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 17. Type material: Syntypes ff [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) octomaculata Pérez in Friese (1911b: 69).-New synonymy based on type material (A. Müller, unpublished).

1895 Osmia humeralis Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 18. Type material: Syntypes mm, ff, [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) humeralis Pérez in Friese (1911b: 69).-New synonymy based on type material (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Europe: E, F, I(Si), P. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Stanek (1969a: 15-16).

Nesting biology-Nestings site: Preexisting cavities: empty snail shells (e.g. Bulimus) with up to 5 cells per shell. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of resin. (Ferton, 1894)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Crassulaceae, Brassicaceae, Campanulaceae, Fabaceae, Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium) and Lamiaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 8 pollen samples from 6 different localities).

Protosmia (Protosmia) glutinosa (Giraud, 1871)

1871 Heriades glutinosus Giraud, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, ser. 5, 1: 389. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “près de Saragosse” [Spain]. Type species of Protosmia Ducke.-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) glutinosa (Giraud) in Friese (1911b: 68).

Distribution-Europe: BG, E, F, GR, HR, I, MK, P, RO, SLO; Caucasus. Northern Africa: DZ, MA. Southwestern Asia: CY, IR, JOR. SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Benoist (1929a); Ducke (1900); Stanek (1969a: 13-14).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: abandoned cells in exposed nests of other aculeates (e.g. Sceliphron, Chalicodoma); insect burrows in the ground (e.g.of Anthophora); empty snail shells (e.g. Sphincterophila) with 1 cell per shell. Nesting material: Cell partitions are made of resin. (Benoist, 1931; Giraud, 1871; Moreno-Rueda et al., 2008; Popov, 1961; J. Ortiz-Sanchez (personal communication)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium), Alliaceae (e.g. Allium) and Campanulaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 19 pollen samples from 15 different localities).

Protosmia (Protosmia) luctuosa (Lucas, 1849)

1849 Osmia luctuosa Lucas, Exploration scientifique de l’Algérie, p. 190. Type material: Holotype f, “les environs de Constantine” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).

1895 Osmia cavigena Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 19. Type material: Syntypes mm, [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) cavigena Pérez in Friese (1911b: 69).-Synonymy in Benoist (1950b: 183).

Distribution-Northern AfricaDZ, MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Protosmia (Protosmia) lusitanica Le Goff & Gonçalves, 2018

2018 Protosmia (Protosmia) lusitanica Le Goff & Gonçalves, Entomofauna, 39: 188. Type material: Holotype f, “São Sebastião dos Carros – district de Mértola – Beja” [Portugal], Le Goff Collection.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: P.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Protosmia (Protosmia) magnicapitis (Stanek, 1969)

1969 Osmia (Protosmia) magnicapitis Stanek, Nachrichten des Naturwissenschaftlichen Museums der Stadt Aschaffenburg, 78: 7. Type material: Holotype f, “Birecik” [Turkey], SMFD (Frankfurt).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Protosmia (Protosmia) monstrosa (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia monstrosa Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 19. Type material: Syntypes mm, [Algeria], presumed lost (Griswold, 1985: 121).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) monstrosa Pérez in Friese (1911b: 70).

1899 Osmia mirabilis Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 330. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Brumana” [Lebanon], “Jerusalem” [Israel], OUMNH (Oxford) and ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy in Alfken (1935b: 175).

1935 Heriades limbata Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 40: 278. Type material: Holotype f, “Syrie: Ksara” [Lebanon], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Protosmia (Rhodosmia) limbata (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 67). Combination Protosmia (Protosmia) limbata (Benoist) in Zanden (1988b: 127). Combination Protosmia (Nanosmia) limbata (Benoist) in Ungricht et al. (2008: 202). New synonymy with Protosmia mirabilis (Friese) based on type material (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution- Europe: GR. Northern Africa: DZ. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, JOR, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Griswold and Parker (1987: 55); Mavromoustakis (1955b: 332); Zanden (1994b: 1116).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: small crevices in large stones. The observation of several males and females flying around dead wood indicate that this species might also use insect borings in dead wood as a a nesting site. Nesting material: Unknown. (Mavromoustakis, 1939b; A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Fabaceae, Asteraceae (Carduoideae and Cichorioideae), Crassulaceae, Brassicaceae, Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium), Lamiaceae and Campanulaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 18 pollen samples from 11 different localities). Flower records: Ajuga chamaepitys (label record).

Protosmia (Protosmia) paradoxa (Friese, 1899)

1899 Osmia paradoxa Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 328. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of D. S. Peters (Tkalcu, 1978: 158), “Brumana” [Lebanon], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype f. Type species of Rhodosmia Michener.-Combination Heriades (Protosmia) paradoxa (Friese) in Zanden (1980: 229). Combination Protosmia (Rhodosmia) paradoxa Friese in Zanden (1988b: 127).

Distribution- Europe: GR. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, JOR, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Popov (1961: 365); Tkalcu (1978: 154-158).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: empty snail shells (e.g. Eobania, Helicella). Nesting material: Resin. (Mavromoustakis, 1939b)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Asteraceae (Carduoideae and Asteroideae), Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium), Cistaceae and Antirrhineae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 18 pollen samples from 15 different localities).

Protosmia (Protosmia) sideritis Tkalcu, 1978

1978 Protosmia (Rhodosmia) sideritis Tkalcu, Casopis Slezskeho Muzea Opava (A), 27: 154. Type material: Holotype m, “Bulgaria sept.-or. Albena” [Bulgaria], Tkalcu Collection (Praha); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Europe: BG, GR, MK. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: empty snail shells (e.g. Helicella). Nesting material: Unknown. (Tkalcu, 1978)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium) and Brassicaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 5 pollen samples from 5 different localities).

Protosmia (Protosmia) stelidoides (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia stelidoides Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 17. Type material: Syntypes ff, [Algeria], presumed lost (Griswold, 1985: 122).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) stelidoides Pérez in Friese (1911b: 70). Combination Protosmia (Rhodosmia) stelidoides (Pérez) in Zanden (1988b: 127).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ; MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: empty snail shells (e.g. Helix) with 2-4 cells per shell. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of resin. (Ferton, 1894, 1908)

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Protosmia (Protosmia) stigmatica (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia stigmatica Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 17. Type material: f(f), [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) stigmatica Pérez in Friese (1911b: 69). Combination Protosmia (Rhodosmia) stigmatica (Pérez) in Zanden (1988b: 127).-Synonymy with Protosmia tiflensis (Morawitz) in Griswold (1985: 122), not followed by subsequent authors.

Distribution-Europe: E, F, GR. Northern Africa: MA, DZ.Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Stanek (1969a: 17-18). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Protosmia (Protosmia) tauricola Popov, 1961

1961 Protosmia tauricola Popov, Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal (Moscow), 40: 364. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Crimea” [Ukraine], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Protosmia (Rhodosmia) tauricola Popov in Zanden (1988b: 128).

Distribution-Europe: BG, HR?, RUS, UA. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Medvedeva (1978).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: empty snail shells. Nesting material: Unknown. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001)

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Protosmia (Protosmia) tiflensis (Morawitz, 1876)

1876 Osmia tiflensis Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 12: 45. Type material: Holotype f, “Tiflis, im botanischen Garten” [Georgia], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) tiflensis Morawitz in Friese (1911b: 68). Combination Protosmia (Rhodosmia) tiflensis (Morawitz) in Zanden (1988b: 128).

1890 Osmia (Acanthosmia) Gräffei Schmiedeknecht, Atti del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Trieste, 8: 137. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “giardini del Campo Marzio” [Italy], NMW (Wien).-Combination Osmia (Protosmia) graeffei Schmiedeknecht in Friese (1911b: 70).-Synonymy in Popov (1961: 363).

Distribution-Europe: BG, GE, GR, HR, I, MK, RUS, SLO, UA. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Popov (1961: 363-364); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood, probably also holes in stones. Nesting material: Unknown. (Ducke, 1898, 1900; Schmiedeknecht, 1890)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Lamiaceae, Fabaceae and Boraginaceae (e.g. Echium) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 12 pollen samples from 10 different localities). Males were observed to patrol flowers of Stachys recta (Gogala, 2009).