Subgenus Tergosmia

The subgenus Tergosmia Warncke is confined to the Palaearctic region. It contains 7 described species. Osmia avosetta, which was included by Zanden (1994a) in the monotypic subgenus Ozbekosmia, is treated here as member of the subgenus Tergosmia due to substantial similarities in morphology (Warncke, 1988b) and biology (Rozen et al., 2010).

Five brood cells of Osmia (Tergosmia) tergestensis Ducke, 1897 built from petals and mud and hidden between the blades of a dense grass tussocks; the grass blades were removed to make the cells visible. Foto A. Müller.

Species accounts

Osmia (Tergosmia) agilis Morawitz, 1875

1875 Osmia agilis Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 88. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1991a: 48), “Tschardara” [Kazakhstan], ZMUM (Moscow); paralectotypes mm, ff.-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) agilis Morawitz in Friese (1911b: 110). Combination Osmia (Diceratosmia) agilis Morawitz in Tkalcu (1969a: 333). Combination Osmia (Caerulosmia) agilis Morawitz in Zanden (1988b: 123).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ, TM, UZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Warncke (1992b: 917); Zanden (1991a).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Fabaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 7 pollen samples from 3 different localities). The females possess long and curved bristles on the galeae of the proboscis. Curved bristles on the proboscis or on the forelegs are known to have evolved in several bee taxa for scraping pollen out of flowers that have their anthers hidden in narrow tubes (Müller, 1995, 2006; Müller and Kuhlmann, 2003; Neff, 2004; Parker and Tepedino, 1982; Thorp, 1979, 2000). However, it seems improbable that the specialized bristles in O. agilis serve to extract pollen from Fabaceae flowers. Thus, the function of these bristles remains enigmatic. Similarly, Anthidiellum breviusculum has long and curved bristles on the labial palpi of the proboscis whose function is still unknown (Müller, 1996).

Osmia (Tergosmia) avosetta Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) avosetta Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 394. Type material: Holotype f, “Erçek/Van” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff. Type species of Ozbekosmia Zanden.-Combination Osmia (Heterosmia) avosetta Warncke in Tkalcu (1993a: 56). Combination Osmia (Ozbekosmia) avosetta Warncke in Zanden (1994a), Michener (2007) and Ungricht et al. (2008).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1994a: 168).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows (3-7cm deep) in rather loose, sandy to gravelly ground with usually one cell at the end of the burrow, rarely with two cells immediately beside each other. Nesting material: Cells walls are made entirely from imported material; they are distinctly three-layered with a mud layer sandwiched between two layers of large petal pieces (e.g. of Hedysarum or Onobrychis). (Rozen et al., 2010).

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Hedysareae (Fabaceae), e.g. Onobrychis, Hedysarum (Rozen et al., 2010).

Osmia (Tergosmia) glareola Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) glareola Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 393. Type material: Holotype f, “Erçek/Van” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m(m), f(f).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Fabaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 4 pollen samples from the same locality).

Osmia (Tergosmia) lunata Benoist, 1928

1928 Osmia lunata Benoist, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc (Rabat), 8: 213. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1985: 53), “environs de Rabat” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris); paralectotype m.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) lunata (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 53).

Distribution-Europe: E, F, P. Northern Africa: MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931); Warncke (1988b); Zanden (1985: 54).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in the ground. The burrow entrances are hidden under small shrublets. For each cell, a more or less vertical burrow (1.5cm deep) is excavated in rather hard soil. Up to 10 cells are built immediately beside each other separated by few millimeters only. The cells of a single nest – when removed from the soil – partly adhere to each other by small earthen bridges. Nesting material: The cells (ca. 1.5cm long) are entirely built of petals (e.g. of Helianthemum) and mud. The cell walls are usually three-layered: the outer layer consists of small to large petal pieces glued together with mud, rarely with small pebbles as well; the central layer consists of a thin layer of mud, which is sometimes only weakly developed; the inner layer is composed of 6-10 layers of large petal pieces without any addition of mud. After egg deposition, the cell is closed by folding over the inner layer of petals. Afterwards, the cell cap is built which is composed of two layers: the inner layer is rather thick and consists of small petal pieces glued together with mud and small pebbles; the outer layer consists of a thin wall of petal pieces neatly glued together. Occasionally, the cell cap is rather three-layered with an inner layer of small petal pieces, a central layer of mud and small pebbles and an outer layer composed of a thin wall of petal pieces. In the end, the cell cap is hidden under a thin and loose layer of sand and small pebbles. (A. Müller, personal observation; Rozen et al., 2010)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Fabaceae, an important pollen source is Lotus (based on Rozen et al. (2010) and on 5 additional pollen samples from 3 different localities (A. Müller, unpublished)). The males were observed to patrol Lotus flowers in search of females (A. Müller, personal observation).

Osmia (Tergosmia) pratincola Warncke, 1988

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) pratincola Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 392. Type material: Holotype f, “20 km N Patnos/Agri, 1650 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes m(m), f(f).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Tergosmia) rhodoensis (Zanden, 1983)

1983 Anthocopa rhodoensis Zanden, Faunistische Abhandlungen (Dresden), 10: 126. Type material: Holotype m, “Profitis Ilias, Rhodos” [Greece], RMNH (Leiden); paratypes mm, ff.

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) rhodoensis ferina Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 391. Type material: Holotype f, “Delphi” [Greece], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm.-New synonymy (A. Müller, unpublished).

1988 Osmia (Tergosmia) rhodoensis arquata Warncke, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 9: 391. Type material: Holotype f, “südlich Rize, 1800 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.-New synonymy (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Europe: ARM, GR. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Warncke (1988b).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: cracks and holes in rocks and stones. The two only nests recorded so far contained one single cell and two cells closely beside each other, respectively. Nesting material: The cells, which are not glued to the substrate, are three-layered: the outer and inner layer consist of large pieces of petals (e.g. of Geranium, Linum), the central layer is built of mud. (Warncke, 1988b; Rozen et al., 2010)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a preference for Fabaceae (e.g. Onobrychis); additional pollen sources include Campanulaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae (Asteroideae and Cichorioideae) and Lamiaceae (based on Rozen et al. (2010) and on 6 additional pollen samples from 6 different localities (A. Müller, unpublished)).

Osmia (Tergosmia) tergestensis Ducke, 1897

1897 Osmia tergestensis Ducke, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 23: 41. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1983: 125), “Triest” [Italy], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype m. Type species of Tergosmia Warncke.-Combination Osmia (Osmia) tergestensis Ducke in Friese (1911b: 91). Combination Anthocopa tergestensis (Ducke) in Zanden (1983: 125).

1897 Osmia ononidis Ferton, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 52: 44. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1979: 319), “Massenenie” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Tergosmia) tergestensis ononidis Ferton in Warncke (1988b: 392), newly synonymized by A. Müller (unpublished).

1902 Osmia Rondoui Pérez, Procès-verbaux de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 57: 66. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1979: 329), “Gèdre” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Warncke (1988b: 392).

1922 Osmia wolhynica Noskiewicz, Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 1: 9. Type material: Syntypes mm, “Lösstal bei Krasny Staw in der Nähe von Lublin” [Poland].-Synonymy in Warncke (1988b: 392).

1934 Osmia atlantica Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 39: 107. Type material: Holotype f, “Asni” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Zanden (1985: 63).

1979 Anthocopa tergestensis remota Tkalcu, Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca (Praha), 76: 320. Type material: Holotype f, “O-Türkei” [Turkey], EMET (Erzurum); paratypes mm, ff.-Synonymy in Warncke (1988b: 392).

Distribution-Europe: A, BG, CH, CZ, E, F, GR, H, HR, I, P, PL, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Africa: ET, MA. Northern Asia: KZ. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Móczár (1958); Scheuchl (1996); Warncke (1988b); Zanden (1983: 126-129).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: cavities under or between stones and rock fissures; in dense grass tussocks. The cells are built singly or in small groups of up to five or more cells closely beside each other. Nesting material: The cells, which are not glued to the substrate, are three-layered: the outer and inner layer consist of large pieces of petals (e.g. of Geranium, Helianthemum, Hieracium, Ononis), the central layer is built of mud intermixed with small pebbles. In narrow cavities, the space in front of the cells is sometimes filled with earth crumbs up to a length of 0.5cm. (Amiet et al., 2004; Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Ferton, 1897; Müller et al., 1997; Rozen et al., 2010).

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Fabaceae (e.g. Hippocrepis, Lotus, Onobrychis) (based on Amiet et al. (2004), Müller et al. (1997), Rozen et al. (2010) and on 1 additional pollen sample (A. Müller, unpublished)).