Subgenus Melanosmia

The subgenus Melanosmia Schmiedeknecht is distributed both in the Palaearctic and the Nearctic region. It contains 109 described species, 19 of which occur in the Palaearctic.

Two brood cells of Osmia (Melanosmia) xanthomelana (Kirby, 1802) entirely made of mud and hidden between the blades of a dense grass tussock (left); the grass blades were removed to make the cells visible; female of O. xanthomelana collecting mud (right). Fotos A. Müller.

Species accounts

Osmia (Melanosmia) ephippiata Smith, 1879

1879 Osmia ephippiata Smith, Description of New Species of Hymenoptera in the Collection of the British Museum, p. 60. Type material: Holotype f, “Angara River, Siberia” [Russia], BMNH (London).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RUS(ES); Turkestan.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Rightmyer et al. (2010); Tkalcu (1983: 155). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Melanosmia) jilinensis Wu, 2004

2004 Osmia (Melanosmia) jilinense Wu, Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 29: 533. Type material: Holotype f, “Jilin, Changbaishan (41.4°N, 128.1°E)” [China], IZCAS (Beijing).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC(NE).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Melanosmia) melanota Morawitz, 1888

1888 Osmia melanota Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 22: 243. Type material: f(f), “am Atrek” [Turkestan].

Distribution-Northern Asia: Turkestan.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Melanosmia) nigroscopula (Wu, 1982)

1982 Chelostoma nigroscopula Wu, Insects of Xizang, vol. 2, p. 406, p. 424. Type material: Holotype f, “Xizang: Chagyab, 3600 m” [China], IZCAS (Beijing).-Combination Osmia (Melanosmia) nigroscopula (Wu) in Wu (2006: 73).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RC(WP).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Wu (2006). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Melanosmia) thoracica Radoszkowski, 1874

1874 Osmia thoracica Radoszkowski, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 10: 192. Type material: f(f), “Erivan” [Armenia].

1905 Osmia Pentheri Kohl, Annalen des Kaiserlich-Königlichen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 20: 242. Type material: Syntypes mm, “Erdschias (Ewlije-Dagh)” [Turkey].-Synonymy in Zanden (1983: 136).

Distribution-Europe: ARM. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Rightmyer et al. (2010); Zanden (1983: 137).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

inermis group

Osmia (Melanosmia) disjuncta Tkalcu, 1995

1995 Osmia (Melanosmia) disjuncta Tkalcu, Entomologische Abhandlungen (Dresden), 57: 138. Type material: Holotype f, “SW-Mongolei: Bulgan-gol/Jarantaj” [Mongolia], MLUH (Halle); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Northern Asia: MGL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Rightmyer et al. (2010).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Melanosmia) inermis (Zetterstedt, 1838)

1838 Anthophora inermis Zetterstedt, Insecta Lapponica, vol. 1, p. 466. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Tkalcu (1983: 153), “Lapponiararius; in ipso alpium Tornensium jugo (Lapponia; Gottlandia Sueciae)” [Sweden], MZLU (Lund).-Combination Osmia (Chenosmia) inermis (Zetterstedt) in Zanden (1988b: 125).

1864 Osmia globosa Cresson, Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 3: 36. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Apis globosa Scopoli, 1763]. Type material: Holotype f, “Great Slave Lake, British America” [USA].-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1983: 153).

1869 Osmia vulpecula Gerstaecker, Entomologische Zeitung (Stettin), 30: 335. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1983: 153), “Chur” [Switzerland], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype f.-Synonymy in Dalla Torre (1896: 398).

1910 Osmia globosiformis Cockerell, The Canadian Entomologist, 42: 311 [not seen]. Type material: Holotype m, [USA].-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1983: 153).

Distribution-Europe: A, CH, CZ, D, E, F, FIN, FL, GB, GR, HR, I, L?, LV, MK, N, PL, RUS, S. Northern Asia: RC. Extralimital: Nearctic (Canada, USA).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Müller (2002: 805); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1983); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: the brood cells (up to 200) are attached to the underside of stones, to the walls of small cavities in rocks and stones or – in one case – to the underside of a discarded heat shield from a vehicle catalytic converter. Nesting material: Cells are entirely built of chewed leaves. The nest stones are sealed by a wall of sand towards the ground. Often, several females communally build their brood cells under the same stone. (Else and Edwards, 1996; Friese, 1923; Grandi, 1962; Hicks, 2009; Müller et al., 1997; Priesner, 1981; Schedl, 1982; Smith, 1851; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 1989; Zetterstedt, 1838; G. Else, unpublished manuscript)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a preference for Fabaceae; additional pollen sources include Vaccinium (Ericaceae) and Salix (Salicaceae) (Amiet et al., 2004; Hicks, 2009; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, based on the pollen composition of 2 brood cells from the same locality and on field observations).

- subspecies bulgarica Friese, 1923

1923 Osmia bulgarica Friese, Zoologisches Jahrbuch (Jena), 46: 207. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of G. van der Zanden (A. Müller, unpublished), “vom Pepelak, Lisec” [Macedonia], ZMHB (Berlin).-Combination Osmia inermis bulgarica Friese in Warncke (1988c: 104).

Distribution-Europe: GR, I, MK.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1983: 157).

- subspecies inermis (Zetterstedt, 1838)

1838 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: A, CH, CZ, D, E, F, FIN, FL, GB, HR, I, L?, LV, N, PL, RUS, S. Northern Asia: RC. Extralimital: Nearctic (Canada, USA).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Osmia (Melanosmia) ishikawai Hirashima, 1973

1973 Osmia (Melanosmia) ishikawai Hirashima, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 18: 64. Type material: Holotype f, “Mt. Meakan, Hokkaido” [Japan], KUEC (Fukuoka); paratype f.

Distribution-Northern Asia: J, RC(NO).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Rightmyer et al. (2010); Wu (2006). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Osmia (Melanosmia) laticeps Thomson, 1872

1872 Osmia laticeps Thomson, Skandinaviens Hymenoptera, vol. 2, p. 242. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1983: 154), “Skane län, Ängelholms kn, Rössjöholm” [Sweden], MZLU (Lund).-Synonymy with Osmia (Melanosmia) uncinata Gerstaecker in Dalla Torre (1896: 414) and in Tkalcu (1983: 154), rejected by Nilsson (2009: 51).

1983 Osmia (Melanosmia) hyperborea Tkalcu, Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke, 47: 156. Type material: Holotype m, “N-Schweden, Abisko” [Sweden], UZIU (Uppsala); paratype m.-Synonymy with Osmia parietina Curtis in Schwarz et al. (1996: 126), rejected by Haeseler (1999: 454). Synonymy in Nilsson (2009: 52).

Distribution-Europe: D, FIN, LT, N, RUS(NR), S. Extralimital: Nearctic (Canada, USA).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Haeseler (1999); Nilsson (2009: 52); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Tkalcu (1995: 140).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Vaccinium (Ericaceae) (Nilsson, 2009).

Osmia (Melanosmia) parietina Curtis, 1828

1828 Osmia parietina Curtis, British Entomology, vol. 5, [no.] 222. Type material: Syntypes ff, “near Ambleside” [United Kingdom], presumed lost (Tkalcu, 1983: 156).

1838 Anthophora angustula Zetterstedt, Insecta Lapponica, vol. 1, p. 466. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1983: 156), “Lapponia” [Sweden], MZLU (Lund).-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1983: 156).

1887 Osmia Vankovitzii Radoszkowski, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 21: 283. Type material: Holotype f, “Gouvernement de Minsk” [Belarus], destroyed (Tkalcu, 1983: 156).-Synonymy with Osmia angustula (Zetterstedt) in Friese (1909: 126). Synonymy with Osmia parietina Curtis in Tkalcu (1983: 156).

Distribution-Europe: A, B, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, EST, F, FIN, FL, GB, GR, H, I, L, LV, LT, N, NL, PL, RUS, S, SK, SLO, UA; Caucasus. Northern Asia: RUS. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Haeseler (1999); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1983, 1995: 139-140).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood and drilled borings in wooden blocks; abandoned nests of other aculeates; small cavities and fissures in stones, rocks and dry-stone walls; empty borings of Hiatella (Mollusca) in limestone rocks. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of chewed leaves (e.g. from Fragaria or a mixture of lichens and bryophytes). (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Frey-Gessner, 1880; Friese, 1923; Grünwaldt, 1939; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 1989; G. Else, unpublished manuscript)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a preference for Fabaceae; additional pollen sources include Sedum (Crassulaceae) and possibly also Fragaria (Rosaceae) and Veronica (Plantaginaceae) (Amiet et al., 2004; Westrich, 1989).

Osmia (Melanosmia) pilicornis Smith, 1846

1846 Osmia pilicornis Smith, The Zoologist (London), 4: 1567. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “near Bristol”, “Birch Wood” [United Kingdom], not found at BMNH (London) according to Tkalcu (1983: 155).

Distribution-Europe: A, B, CH, CZ, D, DK, F, FIN, GB, H, LT, LV, NL, PL, RO, RUS, S, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Asia: RC?.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Müller (2002: 806); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1983); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood; probably also cavities under bark. Reports of nesting in empty snail shells (Friese, 1911b; Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001) are most probably wrong. Nesting material: Chewed leaves (e.g. Fragaria). (Amiet et al., 2004; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 2010: www.wildbienen.info/forschung/beobachtung20100525.php; G. Else, unpublished manuscript)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a preference for Pulmonaria (Boraginaceae); additional pollen sources include Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and monocots (Amiet et al., 2004; Müller, 1995; Westrich, 1989). In Britain, Ajuga and Glechoma (Lamiaceae) are often exploited for pollen (R. Earwaker, personal communication). The females possess hooked bristles on the galeae of the proboscis which serve to extract pollen from the narrow-tubed flowers of Pulmonaria (Müller, 1995; Müller et al., 1997).

Osmia (Melanosmia) steinmanni Müller, 2002

2002 Osmia (Melanosmia) steinmanni Müller, Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 109: 804. Type material: Holotype f, “Appenzell Innerrhoden, Wasserauen, Ebenalp, 1500 m” [Switzerland], ETHZ (Zürich); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Europe: CH, I; A.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Rightmyer et al. (2010).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably polylectic with a strong preference for Fabaceae (e.g. Lotus, Hippocrepis); additional pollen sources include Ericaceae (Amiet et al., 2004; A. Müller, unpublished, based 10 pollen samples from 4 different localities and on field observations).

Osmia (Melanosmia) svenssoni Tkalcu, 1983

1983 Osmia svenssoni Tkalcu, Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke, 47: 154. Type material: Holotype m, “N-Schweden, Abisko” [Sweden], UZIU (Uppsala); paratypes mm, ff.-Synonymy with Osmia uncinata Gerstaecker in Schwarz et al. (1996: 128), rejected by Müller (2002: 804).

Distribution-Europe: FIN, S.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Müller (2002: 805, 806); Rightmyer et al. (2010).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Individuals of the type series have been collected from a nest on the underside of a flat stone. Nesting material: Unknown. (Nilsson, 2009)

Flower preferences: Unknown. Flower records: Astragalus alpinus (J. Paukkunen, personal communication).

Osmia (Melanosmia) uncinata Gerstaecker, 1869

1869 Osmia uncinata Gerstaecker, Entomologische Zeitung (Stettin), 30: 336. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Tkalcu (1983: 154), “Umgegend Berlin’s (Brieselanger Forst, Machnow)” [Germany], ZMHB (Berlin).

Distribution-Europe: A, B, CH, CZ, D, DK, F, FIN, FL, GB, I, L, LT, LV, N, NL, PL, RUS, S, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Asia: RUS(FS).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Haeseler (1999); Medvedeva (1978); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Romankova (1984, 1995); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1983).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood or bark and drilled borings in wooden blocks; between the thick bark of pine trees. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of chewed leaves. (Amiet et al., 2004; Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Friese, 1923; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 1989; G. Else, unpublished manuscript)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include plants belonging to 10 different families (Amiet et al., 2004; Quest, 2009; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 1 pollen sample).

nigriventris group

Osmia (Melanosmia) nigriventris (Zetterstedt, 1838)

1838 Anthophora nigriventris Zetterstedt, Insecta Lapponica, vol. 1, p. 465. Type material: f(f), “Lapponia rarissime; ad Bossekop Finmarkiae occidentalis (Lapponia Norvegica; in Gottlandia ad Sanda)” [Norway, Sweden], presumed lost (Tkalcu, 1995: 141).-Combination Osmia (Centrosmia) nigriventris (Zetterstedt) in Zanden (1988b: 124).-Nearctic population of this holarctic species accepted as combination Osmia (Melanosmia) nigriventris frigida Smith, 1853 with synonym Osmia hudsonica Cresson, 1864 (Tkalcu, 1995: 141).

1867 Osmia Baicalensis Radoszkowski, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 5: 80. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1991b: 353), “Sibérie: environs du Baikal” [Russia], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy with Osmia dimidiata Morawitz in Friese (1909: 126) and in Warncke (1988a: 34), rejected by Zanden (1991b: 353). Synonymy with Osmia nigriventris (Zetterstedt) in Zanden (1991b: 353).

1869 Osmia corticalis Gerstaecker, Entomologische Zeitung (Stettin), 30: 331. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1995: 141) (but see Nilsson, 2009: 50), “Pommern, Garz, Deutschland” [Germany], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype m.-Synonymy in Dalla Torre (1896: 403), in Tkalcu (1995: 140) and in Nilsson (2009: 50).

Distribution-Europe: A, CH, CZ, D, F, FIN, I, LT, LV, N, PL, RUS, S, SK. Northern Asia: MGL, RC, RUS(ES), RUS(FS). Extralimital: Nearctic (Canada, USA).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Radoszkowski (1874a: 193, 1887a: 281-282); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Romankova (1984, 1995); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood. There are also reports that burrows in bark or in decaying wood are (partially?) excavated by the bees. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of chewed leaves. (Amiet et al., 2004; Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Frey-Gessner, 1880; Friese, 1923; Giraud, 1861; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 1989)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a preference for Vaccinium (Ericaceae); additional pollen sources include Fabaceae and Potentilla (Rosaceae) (Amiet et al., 2004; Westrich, 1989).

xanthomelana group

Osmia (Melanosmia) alticola Benoist, 1922

1922 Osmia alticola Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 91: 323. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Pyrénées-Orientales” [France], presumed lost (Haeseler, 1999: 455).-Synonymy with Osmia maritima Friese in Stöckhert (1954: 49), rejected by Tkalcu (1983: 152).

Distribution-Europe: A, CH, E, F.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Benoist (1931); Haeseler (1999); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Tkalcu (1983).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated short burrows (6-7cm deep) in the ground with 1 cell at the end. Nesting material: Cells are entirely built of chewed leaves. Fragments of rootlets are glued to the whole cell surface. (Benoist, 1922, 1931)

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Fabaceae (Amiet et al., 2004).

Osmia (Melanosmia) maritima Friese, 1885

1885 Osmia maritima Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 11: 85. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1983: 152), “Dünen der Ostsee bei Warnemünde (Rostock)” [Germany], ZMHB (Berlin).

Distribution-Europe: AD, DK, FIN, N, NL, PL, RUS, S. Northern Asia: MGL, RUS(FS). Extralimital: Nearctic (Canada, USA).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Ducke (1900); Haeseler (1999); Medvedeva (1978); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Romankova (1984, 1995); Scheuchl (1996); Tkalcu (1983).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in sandy soil (1.5-3cm deep) with one cell (occasionally up to 4-10 cells) at the end. Nesting material: Cells are entirely built from chewed leaf pieces (e.g. from Oenothera, Viola) intermixed with sand grains. Dead rootlets are generally incorporated into the cell walls. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Friese, 1891, 1923; Haeseler, 1982; Westrich, 1989)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Brassicaceae and Asteraceae (Westrich, 1989).

Osmia (Melanosmia) pamirensis Gussakovskij, 1930

1930 Osmia (Melanosmia) pamirensis Gussakovskij, Pamir-Expedition, 1928, Zoology, p. 71. Type material: Syntypes mm, ff , “Ridge Sary-col, the Chinese border of Pamir Mountains (4300 m)”, “Pamir Mountains, North-East shore of the lake Kara-kul” [Tajikistan].

1930 Osmia rickmersi Alfken, Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 16: 833. Type material: Syntypes ff, “Gletschertäler im Osten des Karakul (nördl. Pamire, 23), 4200-4500 m” [Central Asian Ranges], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy in Gussakovskij (1936: 757).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, RC, TJ; Central Asian Ranges.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Rightmyer et al. (2010); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. Two pollen samples from 2 different localities consist of pollen of Fabaceae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Osmia (Melanosmia) xanthomelana (Kirby, 1802)

1802 Apis xanthomelana Kirby, Monographia Apum Angliae, vol. 2, p. 246. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1983: 151), [United Kingdom], BMNH (London); paralectotype f.

1811 Osmia fuciformis Latreille, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Histoire Naturelle, Insectes, vol. 8, p. 579. Type material: f(f), “Bois de Boulogne, près de Paris” [France]. Type species of Melanosmia Schmiedeknecht.-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1983: 151).

1812 Osmia chrysomelina Panzer, Faunae Insectorum Germanicae, 110: 15 [not seen]. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), [Germany].-Synonymy with Osmia fuciformis Latreille in Dalla Torre (1896: 395). Synonymy with Osmia xanthomelana (Kirby) in Tkalcu (1983: 151).

Distribution-Europe: A, AND, B, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, F, GB, GR, H, HR, I, L, NL, PL, RO, RUS, SK, SLO; S. Northern Asia: RUS.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Haeseler (1999); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Rightmyer et al. (2010); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1983).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Cells are built singly or in small groups up to 13 in dense grass tussocks, between litter, in decaying stumps, below shelves or in depressions of stones and rocks. Occasionally, the cells are built in excavated burrows between grass roots in loose soil or in the sides of rabbit burrows. Nesting material: Cells are entirely built of mud. Roots or grass blades are often incorporated into the cell walls. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Friese, 1895, 1923; Giraud, 1861; Müller et al., 1997; Smith, 1844; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 1989; G. Else, unpublished manuscript; A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Fabaceae (e.g. Hippocrepis, Lotus) (Amiet et al., 2004; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 1 pollen sample).

- subspecies clarior Tkalcu, 1983

1983 Osmia (Melanosmia) xanthomelana clarior Tkalcu, Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke, 47: 152. Type material: Holotype f, “Sierra de Cazorla, El Puerto” [Spain], Tkalcu Collection (Praha); paratypes ff.

Distribution-Europe: E, F.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

- subspecies xanthomelana (Kirby, 1802)

1802 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: A, AND, B, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, F, GB, GR, H, HR, I, L, NL, PL, RO, RUS, SK, SLO. Northern Asia: RUS.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.