Subgenus Anthocopa

The subgenus Anthocopa Lepeletier & Serville occurs in the Palaearctic and Afrotropical region, marginally also in the Oriental region (Michener, 2007; Ungricht et al., 2008). Worldwide, there are 89 described species, 68 of which occur in the Palaearctic. At least 4 Palaearctic species are still undescribed (A. Müller, unpublished).

Female of Hoplitis (Anthocopa) dalmatica (Morawitz, 1871) biting off a petal of Geranium pyrenaicum (left); brood cell of H. dalmatica in a rock fissure consisting of an outer layer of roughly chewed leaves and an inner layer of petals (right). Fotos A. Müller.

Species accounts

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) alatauensis (Tkalcu, 1992)

1992 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) alatauensis Tkalcu, Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae (Praha), 56: 211. Type material: Holotype m, “Alma Ata-Medeo, 1700 m Zailijkij Alatau Mts.” [Kazakhstan], Tyrner Collection (Litvinov).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, KZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions:No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) alba (Zanden, 1994)

1994 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) alba Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 26: 1117. Type material: Holotype m, “Foum Zguid, 60 km N.” [Morocco], Schwarz Collection (Ansfelden); paratypes m, ff.

Distribution-Northern Africa: MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1994b: 1119).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. The only pollen sample available so far consists of pollen of Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichorioideae) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) albiscopa (Friese, 1899)

1899 Osmia lativentris albiscopa Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 27. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of D.S. Peters (A. Müller, unpublished), “Tunis” [Tunisia], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy with Hoplitis pulchella(Pérez, 1895) in Zanden (1988b: 118), rejected by A. Müller (unpublished).

Distribution-Europe: E, P. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: The only nest found so far was in a 3cm long and vertical burrow in the ground, which was either excavated by the female bee herself or by a an aculeate wasp. It contained 3 linearly arranged cells. Nesting material: The cells were entirely constructed from several layers of pink and blue petal pieces. The partitions between adjacent cells were made of a thin wall of mud. (C. Sedivy, C. Praz and A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Asteraceae (Cichorioideae, Carduoideae, Asteroideae), Convolvulaceae, Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Campanulaceae, Linum (Linaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 10 pollen samples from 7 different localities and the pollen content of 2 brood cells of the same nest).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) antigae (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia Antigae Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 13. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Barcelona” [Spain], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) antigae (Pérez) in Zanden (1988b: 117).

Distribution-Europe: E, F, P. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources include Asteraceae (Carduoideae), Campanulaceae, Cistaceae, Convolvulaceae and Echium (Boraginaceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 3 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

subspecies antigae (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Europe: E, P?.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

– subspecies laevior (Benoist, 1926)

1926 Osmia antigae laevior Benoist, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 95: 210. Type material: Holotype f, “aux environs de Nemours (S.-et-M.)” [France, but see Zanden (1988a: 62)], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) antigae laevior (Benoist) in Zanden (1988b: 117).

Distribution-Europe: E, F, P?. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions:No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) askhabadensis (Radoszkowski, 1886)

1886 Pseudosmia askhabadensis Radoszkowski, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 20: 14. Type material: f(f), “Ashkhabad” [Turkmenistan].-Combination Osmia askhabadensis (Radoszkowski) in Dalla Torre (1896: 385). Combination Hoplitis (Pseudosmia) askhabadensis (Radoszkowski) in Zanden (1988b: 119).

Distribution-Northern Asia: TM.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions:No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) ayardi (Benoist, 1928)

1928 Osmia Ayardi Benoist, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc (Rabat), 8: 213. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1985: 53), “Aïn Leuh, près d’Azrou” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris); paralectotype m.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) ayardi (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 53).

Distribution-Northern Africa: MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1985: 53).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) barbigera (Benoist, 1950)

1950 Osmia barbigera Benoist, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc (Rabat), 30: 187. Type material: Holotype f, “Tafraout” [Morocco], MZLS (Lausanne).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) barbigera (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 68).

Distribution-Northern Africa: MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1985: 68). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) batyamae (Zanden, 1986)

1986 Anthocopa wahrmani batyamae Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 24: 72. Type material: Holotype f, “Bat Yam” [Israel], RMNH (Leiden); paratypes ff.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) batyamae Zanden in Zanden (1998b: 529).

1998 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) maroccana Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 30: 526. Type material: Holotype m, “Erfoud” [Morocco], RMNH (Leiden).-New synonymy based on the male holotype (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution- Europe: P. Northern Africa: ET, MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: IL, OM, UAE, Y.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated vertical burrow (ca. 4cm deep) in horizontal, hard-packed sandy soil with two linearly arranged cells at its end. Nesting material: The two cells, which were separated by a thin earthen layer, were entirely built from the yellow petals of Campanula sulphurea. (C. Praz and C. Sedivy, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a probable preference for Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Carduoideae, Cichorioideae); additional pollen sources include Brassicaceae, Resedaceae and Convolvulaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 4 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) bifoveolata (Alfken, 1935)

1935 Osmia (Lithosmia) bifoveolata Alfken, Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen, 1: 190. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1989: 74), “Wadi el Kelt” [Israel], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype f [= Hoplitis anipuncta (Alfken), see Zanden (1988b: 117, 1989: 74].-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) bifoveolata (Alfken) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia:IL, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1989: 74).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. The only pollen sample available so far consists of pollen of Asteroideae and Cichorioideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) bubulca (Zanden, 1994)

1994 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) bubulca Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 26: 1119. Type material: Holotype f, “60 km N Foum Zguid” [Morocco], Schwarz Collection (Ansfelden); paratypes m, ff.

Distribution-Northern Africa: MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) bytinskii (Mavromoustakis, 1948)

1948 Osmia bytinskii Mavromoustakis, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. 12, 1: 220. Type material: Holotype m, “Tiberias” [Israel], DAAN (Nicosia); paratype m.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) bytinskii (Mavromoustakis) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably polylectic: pollen sources known so far include Linum (Linaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 2 pollen samples from the same locality).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) conosimilis Zanden, 1992

1992 Hoplitis (Hoplitis) conosimilis Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 29: 68. Type material: Holotype m, “Chichaoua (500 m)” [Morocco], RMNH (Leiden); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Northern Africa: MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Misapplication: Female description in Zanden (1992) refers to Hoplitis (Hoplitis) benoisti (Alfken, 1935) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) cristatula (Zanden, 1990)

1846 Megachile cristata Fonscolombe, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, ser. 2, 4: 46. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Megachile cristata Dufour, 1841]. Type material: f(f), “environs d’Aix” [France]. Type species of Pseudosmia Radoszkowski.-Combination Pseudosmia cristata (Fonscolombe) in Radoszkowski (1874c: 155). Combination Osmia cristata (Fonscolombe) in Pérez (1879: 192). Combination Osmia (Furcosmia) cristata (Fonscolombe) in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 22 [888]). Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) cristata (Fonscolombe) in Zanden (1988b: 118). Combination Hoplitis (Hoplitis) cristata (Fonscolombe) in Wu (2006: 111).

1990 Anthocopa cristatula Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 28: 51. NOMEN NOVUM with same type specimen for preoccupied Megachile cristata Fonscolombe, 1846 [not Megachile cristata Dufour, 1841].-Combination Anthocopa (Pseudosmia) cristatula Zanden in Zanden (1990: 51).

Distribution-Europe: E, F, F(Co), I, I(Si), P. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN. Northern Asia: RCSouthwestern Asia: TK; IL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Ferton (1895: 205-206); Radoszkowski (1874c: 155); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Wu (2006).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows (2-6cm deep) in horizontal or vertical hard soil with 1-3 linearly arranged cells. The females sometimes also use preexisting insect burrows in the ground. Nesting material: Thecells are entirely built of two to three layers of petals mainly of Malva, Althaea and Lavathera, occasionally also of Ononis. The partitions between adjacent cells and between the last cell and the nest plug are three-layered: a layer of mud and small pebbles between two walls made of chewed petals; these partitions sometimes also consist of masticated petals intermixed with mud and small pebbles. The nest burrow is closed immediately below the soil surface by a wall built in the same way as the cell partitions, sometimes however larger pieces of petals are used than for the cell partitions; this wall is eventually hidden below earth crumbs. The space between the last cell partition and the nest plug is loosely filled with crumpled petals. (Benoist; 1931; Ferton, 1892, 1897; Grandi, 1961; G. Le Goff, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Malvaceae (Ferton, 1892).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) daurica (Radoszkowski, 1887)

1887 Osmia Daurica Radoszkowski, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 21: 284. Type material: f(f), “Côté orientale du lac Baical” [Russia].-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) daurica (Radoszkowski) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Northern Asia: RUS(ES).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) diabolica (Benoist, 1934)

1934 Osmia diabolica Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 39: 159. Type material: Holotype f, “Alger, Maison Carrée” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) diabolica (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 66).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1985: 66). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) ferianaensis (Zanden, 1991)

1991 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) ferianaensis Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 28: 163. Type material: Holotype m, “25 km S. Feriana, Mejen Bel, Abbès” [Tunisia], ZMUC (Copenhagen); paratypes mm.

Distribution-Northern Africa: TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Female unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. The only 2 pollen samples available so far (from the same locality) consist of pollen of Brassicaceae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) furcula (Morawitz, 1875)

1875 Osmia furcula Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 93. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1986: 70), “Tschardara” [Kazakhstan], ZIN (St. Petersburg); paralectotypes mm, ff.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) furcula (Morawitz) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Europe: ARM, GR, GR(Cr). Northern Asia: KZ. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Stanek (1969a: 31-32); Zanden (1986: 70-72).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated short burrow in the ground with one cell (of 1cm length) at the end at a depth of 2cm. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built of 7-8 layers of petals of Geranium. The burrow leading to the cell is partly lined with 2-3 layers of Geranium petals. (Marikovskaya, 1995)

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) glasunovi (Morawitz, 1894)

1894 Osmia Glasunovi Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 28: 29. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Varsaut” [Tajikistan], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) glasunovi (Morawitz) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Northern Asia: TJ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) ilamana (Zanden, 1994)

1994 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) ilamana Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 26: 1118. Type material: Holotype m, “Mt Ilamane, 2200 m” [Algeria], Schwarz Collection (Ansfelden); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1994b: 1117).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) jakovlevi (Radoszkowski, 1874)

1874 Pseudosmia Jakovlevi Radoszkowski, Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 48: 155. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1996b: 885), “Astrakhan” [Russia], ISZP (Krakow); paralectotype f.-Combination Osmia jakovlevi (Radoszkowski) in Dalla Torre (1896: 398). Combination Hoplitis (Pseudosmia) jakovlevi (Radoszkowski) in Zanden (1988b: 119). Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) jakovlevi (Radoszkowski) in Zanden (1996b: 885).

1875 Osmia serrilabris Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 91. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1996b: 885), “prope Kuldscham” [Turkestan], ZMUM (Moscow).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) serrilabris (Morawitz) in Zanden (1988b: 118).-Synonymy in Zanden (1996b: 885).

1879 Osmia quadridentata Fonscolombe, in: Pérez, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 33: 191. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1996b: 885), “Marseille” [France], MNHN (Paris); paralectotypes ff.-Combination Anthocopa serrilabris quadridentata (Fonscolombe) in Zanden (1988b: 115).-Synonymy in Zanden (1996b: 885).

Distribution-Europe: ARM, F, I, I(Si), P, RUS(SR).Northern Africa: DZ, TN. Northern Asia: RC, KS, KZ, TJ, TM. Southwestern Asia: IR,TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Morawitz (1895: 21-22); Radoszkowski (1886: 14); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Stanek (1968: 386-387).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated short burrows in horizontal or vertical hard soil with 1-2 linearly arranged cells at the end. The females sometimes also use preexisting insect burrows in the ground, e.g. burrows of cicad larvae. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built of petals of Althaea. The petals used to line the nest burrow in the beginning are used in the end to close the cell. In long preexisting insect burrows, a basal plug is constructed consisting of Althaea petals. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Gutbier, 1915; G. Le Goff, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Malvaceae (Popov, 1967a, A. Müller, unpublished, based on 4 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) lamina (Pérez, 1896)

1896 Osmia lamina Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 15. Type material: m(m), [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).

1928 Osmia triloba Benoist, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc (Rabat), 8: 214. Type material: m(m), “Grand Atlas, au sud de Marrakech: Asni, 1100 m” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Benoist (1929e: 121).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Reared from Rubus stems. Nesting material: Unknown. (Alfken, 1914, who admits that species identity is uncertain)

Flower preferences: Unknown. Flower records: Scabiosa (Alfken, 1914, who admits that species identity is uncertain).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) longispina (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia longispina Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 14. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1988a: 57), “Mascara” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) longispina (Pérez) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

1899 Osmia gigas Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 62. Type material: Holotype f, “Algerien” [Algeria], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy in Zanden (1988a: 57).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Alfken (1914: 200); Ducke (1900).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in hard, sometimes vertical soil. The entrance burrow ramifies after 1cm in 2-4 very short branches each containing one cell. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built from petals. The nest plug consists of mud intermixed with large grains of sand or other small particles. (Buysson, 1899; Cros, 1932)

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Asteraceae (Carduoideae, Cichorioideae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 4 pollen samples from 3 localities).

subspecies longispina (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

subspecies vogti (Friese, 1911)

1911 Osmia vogti Friese, Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 77: 137. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Tunis” [Tunisia], ZMHB (Berlin).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) longispina vogti (Friese) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Northern Africa: TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) manuelae Müller, 2012

2012 Hoplitis manuelae Müller, Zootaxa, 3355: 48. Type material: Holotype m, “20km N of Almeria” [Spain], ETHZ (Zurich); paratype m.

Distribution-Europe: E.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) mocsaryi (Friese, 1895)

1895 Osmia mocsaryi Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 21: 133. Type material: Syntypes m, f, “Budapest, Ofener Gebirge” [Hungary].-Combination Anthocopa (Arctosmia) mocsaryi (Friese) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

2006 Osmia linophila Westrich, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 27: 297. NOMEN NOVUM with same type specimen for preoccupied Osmia mocsaryi Friese, 1895 [not Chelostoma mocsaryi Schletterer, 1889].

Distribution-Europe: A, ARM, E, F, F(Co), GR, H, RUS, SK. Southwestern Asia: IL, IR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions:Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Mavromoustakis (1938: 467, 1949: 295-296); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Scheuchl (1996).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in the ground (ca. 5cm deep) with up to four ramifications containing 1-2 cells each. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built of several layers of petals exclusively from Linum. The burrows are lined with Linum petals as well. Sometimes a thin wall of mud is built between adjacent cells. The nest entrances are not closed by a nest plug, but remain open. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Linum (Linaceae); one pollen sample contains a mixture of pollen of Linum and Carduoideae (Asteraceae), possibly indicating a certain flexibility in the pollen host choice (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 6 pollen samples from 4 different localities, on the pollen composition of 13 brood cells from 2 different localities and on field observations).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) nasoincisa (Ferton, 1914)

1914 Osmia nasoincisa Ferton, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 83: 83. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1988a: 60), “Dellys” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) nasoincisa (Ferton) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1988a: 60). Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) nicolaei Müller, 2012

2012 Hoplitis (Anthocopa) nicolaei Müller, Zootaxa, 3355: 42. Type material: Holotype m, “Mt. Parnonas, Aghriani, 1000m” [Greece], ETHZ (Zurich); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Europe: BG, GR. Southwestern Asia: JOR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Polylectic; pollen sources known so far include Convolvulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae (Carduoideae, Cichorioideae), Linaceae and Lamiaceae (Müller, 2012a).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) papaveris (Latreille, 1799)

1799 Apis papaveris Latreille, Bulletin des Sciences par la Société Philomathique, II, no. 29: 33 [not seen]. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), [France]. Type species of Anthocopa Lepeletier & Serville, Furcosmia Schmiedeknecht and Phyllotoma Duméril.-Combination Osmia papaveris (Latreille) in Spinola (1808: 201). Combination Phyllotoma papaveris (Latreille) in Duméril (1860: 844). Combination Osmia (Furcosmia) papaveris (Latreille) in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 22 [888]). Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) papaveris (Latreille) in Tkalcu (1969a: 330).

1841 Osmia hyalinipennis Lepeletier, Histoire Naturelle des Insectes, Hyménoptères, vol. 2, p. 329 [not seen]. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1974b: 329), “Environs de Paris” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Benoist (1931: 44).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL, B, BG, CH, CZ, D, E, F, GR, H, I, I(Sa), I(Si), NL, P, RO, RUS, SK, UA; Caucasus. Northern Asia: KZ, RC. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Radoszkowski (1887a: 291); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1969a: 330-332, 1979: 318); Wu (2006); Zanden (1983: 130, 1985: 68).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in hard or sometimes sandy ground (generally 3-8cm, sometimes 10-15cm deep) with generally only one cell (occasionally two to several cells) at the end of the burrow. The nests are usually excavated in horizontal ground, occasionally also in vertical scarps. The females sometimes also use preexisting cavities, e.g. holes in stones and abandoned cells and burrows of the own species or of Anthophora. Nests sometimes in huge colonies. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built of several layers of petals of Papaver (rarely also of Althaea, Centaurea, Malva, Genista or Helianthemum). The nest burrow is lined with large pieces of petals, which are eventually used to close the cell. Directly after this first cell closure, a 3mm thick mud plug is built and/or the entrance burrow is filled with sand. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Duméril, 1860; Ferton, 1902, 1908; Friese, 1923; Günter, 1997; Müller et al., 1997; Pashina, 1948, 1971; Schmiedeknecht, 1885-1886; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 1990, 1991)

Flower preferences: Polylectic, the pollen sources include Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Convolvulaceae, Papaver (Papaveraceae), Echium (Boraginaceae) and Melilotus (Fabaceae) (Amiet et al., 2004; Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Pashina, 1948, 1971; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 2 pollen samples from 2 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) peniculifera Müller, 2012

2012 Hoplitis (Anthocopa) peniculifera Müller, Zootaxa, 3355: 43. Type material: Holotype m, “Murcia, Pto. De Jumilla, 800m” [Spain], ETHZ (Zurich); paratypes m, ff.

Distribution-Europe: E.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown; the only pollen sample analyzed so far contained pollen of Cistaceae (Müller, 2012a).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) perezi (Ferton, 1895)

1895 Osmia Perezi Ferton, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 47: 205. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1969a: 330), “Miramas” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) perezi (Ferton) in Tkalcu (1969a: 330).

1899 Osmia papaveris convolvuli Ducke, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 214. Type material: Syntypes mm, ff, “Triest” [Italy], “Sicilien” [Italy: Sicily], “Fiume” [Croatia], “Spanien” [Spain].-Synonymy in Tkalcu (1969a: 330).

Distribution-Europe: ARM, BG, E, F, F(Co), GR, HR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), MK, P, UA. Northern Africa: MA.Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ, TM, UZ. Southwestern Asia: AFG, IL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Tkalcu (1969a: 330-332).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in hard and generally horizontal soil (ca. 2-3cm deep) with 1-3 linearly arranged cells. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built of several layers of petals of Convolvulus (occasionally Papaver). Petals of Convolvulus are also used to build partitions between adjacent cells and to line the entrance burrow. The nest entrance is filled with sand in the end. (Benoist, 1931; Ferton, 1894, 1895, 1897, 1901, 1908; Ducke, 1900; A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Convolvulaceae (Ducke, 1900; Ferton, 1897; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 17 pollen samples from 15 different localities and on field observations).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) picicornis (Morawitz, 1895)

1895 Osmia picicornis Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 29: 22. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “bei Tedshen” [Turkmenistan], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) picicornis (Morawitz) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, TJ, TM. Southwestern Asia: AFG, IR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions:Ducke (1900).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown. 2 pollen samples from 2 different localities are composed of pollen of Asteroideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) pulchella (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia pulchella Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 15. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975a: 181), “Kérouan” [Tunisia], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) pulchella (Pérez) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

1899 Osmia lativentris Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 27. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1989: 76), “Algerien” [Algeria], “Tunis” [Tunisia], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype ff.-Synonymy in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Europe:E. Northern Africa: DZ, ET, LAR, MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: JOR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Zanden (1989: 76).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a preference for Asteraceae (Asteroideae and Cichorioideae); additional pollen sources include Brassicaceae and Papaver (Papaveraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 21 pollen samples from 9 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) rubricrus (Friese, 1899)

1899 Osmia rubricrus Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 25. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of D.S. Peters (Zanden, 1994b: 1115), “Biskra, Oued S’na” [Algeria], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype f.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) rubricrus (Friese) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, TN;Sahara.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in sandy soil which is rather caked on the surface after rain. Nesting material: Cells entirely built from pink petals of a tall shrub. (Ducke, 1900; Saunders, 1908)

Flower preferences: Unknown. Several males and females were observed  to patrol flowering bushes of Limoniastrum guyonianum (Plumbaginaceae) in southern Tunisia, indicating that this plant species might be an important or even the only host (A. Müller, C. Sedivy and C. Praz, unpublished).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) saundersi (Vachal, 1891)

1891 Osmia Saundersi Vachal, Revue d’Entomologie, Société Française d’Entomologie, 1861: 66. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975a: 180), “Algérie” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris); paralectotype m.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) saundersi (Vachal) in Tkalcu (1975a: 180).

Distribution-Europe: P. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: PAK. Extralimital: Oriental (India).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in hard-packed, sandy soil. After 2-3cm the entrance burrow ramifies in 5-6 branches, each containing one single cell or two cells separated 1-2cm from each other at about 6-8cm below soil surface; sometimes the nests contain only one cell at the end of the nest burrow. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built of several layers of small to large pieces of sterile flowers of Centaurea or of petals of Scabiosa, Convolvulus, Anthemis or Cistus. (Cros, 1927; Ferton, 1890,1911; A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (e.g. Centaurea) (Ferton, 1890; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 5 pollen samples from 4 different localities and on field observations).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) saxialis (Zanden, 1994)

1994 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) saxialis Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 30: 167. Type material: Holotype m, “Zentral-Kaukasus, Itkol Umgeb. 2100-2300 m” [Russia], MTD (Dresden); paratypes mm, f.

Distribution-Europe: I(Aosta vallley), GR(Tymfi, Mt. Olympus), RUS(SR); Caucasus. Southwestern Asia: IR(Elburz), TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a probable preference for Asteraceae (Carduoideae and Cichorioideae); additional pollen sources include Convolvulaceae and Caryophyllaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 10 pollen samples from the same locality).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) semirubra (Friese, 1899)

1899 Osmia semirubra Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 329. Type material: Syntypes mm, ff, “Jericho (Jordanthal)” [Palestine], ZMHB (Berlin), OUMNH (Oxford).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) semirubra (Friese) in Zanden (1988b: 118). Remark: Hoplitis semirubra (Friese, 1899) is a junior homonym of the North American Hoplitis semirubra (Cockerell, 1898) (E. Scheuchl, personal communcation).

1996 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) jerichoensis Zanden, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 28: 888. Type material: Holotype m, “Jericho, 200 m, Wadi Kelt” [Palestine], BMNH (London); paratypes mm.-New synonymy based on a topotypical male paratype and the original description.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, IR, JOR, SYR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1948b: 219-220, 1954b: 263).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in hard or shallow sandy soil. In one case, a female bee constructed three brood cells each inside an abandoned puparium of a sarcophagid fly located a few centimetres below ground. Nesting material: The cells are built of petals of Centaurea and possibly other plant taxa and closed by a wall of finely masticated petal pulp. (A. Müller, C. Praz and C. Sedivy, personal observation; G. Pisanty, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 23 pollen samples from 5 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) serainae Müller, 2012

2012 Hoplitis (Anthocopa) serainae Müller, Zootaxa, 3355: 44. Type material: Holotype m, “Korfu, Sgombou” [Greece], ETHZ (Zurich); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Europe: GR. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown; the only two pollen samples analyzed so far contained pollen of Linaceae (Müller, 2012a).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) simula (Gribodo, 1894)

1894 Osmia simula Gribodo, Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana, 26: 287. Type material: Holotype f, “Teniet et Haad” [Algeria], MSNG (Genova).-Combination Osmia (Osmia) simula Gribodo in Friese (1911b: 90). Combination Anthocopa simula (Gribodo) in Zanden (1990: 54).

1914 Osmia florigera Ferton, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 83: 84. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1988a: 62), “Dellys” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) florigera (Ferton) in Zanden (1988b: 118).-Synonymy in Zanden (1990: 54).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1985: 53, 1988a: 62).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Abandoned burrows of cicindelid larvae (ca. 10cm deep) with 3-4 cells arranged linearly. Nesting material: The cells are entirely constructed from two to four layers of petal pieces (probably of Glaucium and a species of Malvaceae). The partitions between adjacent cells are made of a thin wall of mud. The nest plug, which was still incomplete, was found to consist of a thin wall of chewed leaves 3mm below the soil surface. The space between the last cell and the nest plug was filled with a loose felt of flowers of Scolymus. (Ferton, 1914)

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Asteraceae (e.g. Scolymus) (Ferton, 1914).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) sinuata (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia sinuata Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 17. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1988a: 58), “Foum Tatahouin” [Tunisia], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Chalcosmia) sinuata Pérez in Zanden (1988a: 58). Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) sinuata (Pérez) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

1899 Osmia rufiscopa Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 26. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1988a: 58), “Biskra” [Algeria], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype f.-Synonymy in Zanden (1988a: 58).

1934 Osmia brevifurca Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 39: 159. Type material: Holotype m, “Vallée du Sous” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) brevifurca (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 66).-New synonymy (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Zanden (1985: 66; 1988a: 59).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in the ground. The only nest found so far was about 2cm deep and contained 3 cells, two of which were linearly arranged in the vertical main burrow and one was built at the end of a short side burrow. Nesting material: The cells were entirely constructed from several layers of yellow petal pieces. The partitions between adjacent cells were made of a thin wall of mud. (C. Sedivy, C. Praz and A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Possibly mesolectic on Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichorioideae) and Brassicaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 5 pollen samples from 5 different localities and the pollen content of 3 brood cells of the same nest).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) wahrmani (Mavromoustakis, 1948)

1948 Osmia wahrmani Mavromoustakis, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. 12, 1: 218. Type material: Holotype f, “Mikve Jesrael” [Israel], DAAN (Nicosia); paratypes m, f.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) wahrmani (Mavromoustakis) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1954b: 263); Zanden (1986: 72).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in hard, sandy soil not exceeding 5cm. Nesting material: The cells are entirely constructed from the yellow flowers of Oenothera. (Mavromoustakis, 1954b)

Flower preferences: Polylectic with a probably strong preference for Asteraceae (Carduoideae, Cichorioideae); additional pollen sources include Campanulaceae and Convolvulaceae (Mavromoustakis, 1954b; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 9 pollen samples from 7 different localities).

bisulca species group

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) agis (Benoist, 1929)

1929 Osmia Agis Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 1929: 96. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1985: 56), “Taurus” [Turkey], MNHN (Paris); paralectotype f.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) agis (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 56).

Distribution-Europe: AZ, GR. Southwestern Asia: IL, IR,TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1985: 56).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Dipsacaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 1 pollen sample). Flower record: Lomelosia prolifera (label record).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) bisulca (Gerstaecker, 1869)

1869 Osmia bisulca Gerstaecker, Entomologische Zeitung (Stettin), 30: 344. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Tkalcu (1992: 215), “Sicilien” [Italy: Sicily], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotypes m(m), f(f).-Combination Pseudosmia bisulca (Gerstaecker) in Radoszkowski (1874c: 156). Combination Osmia (Furcosmia) bisulca Gerstaecker in Schmiedeknecht (1886: 185 [1051]). Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) bisulca (Gerstaecker) in Zanden (1980: 231).

1879 Osmia lanosa Pérez, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 33: 194. Type material: Syntypes ff, “Algérie” [Algeria], “France méridionale” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Furcosmia) lanosa Pérez in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 22 [888]).-Synonymy in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Europe: E, F, F(Co), GR, H, I, I(Si), P. Northern Africa: DZ, LAR, TN. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Alfken (1914: 200); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Ferton (1895: 205-206); Móczár (1958); Radoszkowski (1874c: 156); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1992: 213, 215); Zanden (1984c: 176-179).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in mostly hard soil with 1-5 cells either arranged linearly one behind the other or singly at the end of small ramifications. The females sometimes also use preexisting insect burrows in the ground, e.g. burrows of Cicindela larvae. Nesting material: The cells are entirely constructed from finely masticated leaves (rarely petals) of Scabiosa, sometimes also of Dorycnium. The inner surface of the cells is lined with about two layers of petal pieces (e.g. Papaver, Sisymbrium, Matthiola, Convolvulus, Glaucium, Scabiosa). The nest burrow is closed immediately below the soil surface by a partition made of masticated leaves (e.g. Sanguisorba) and/or petals (e.g. Cichorium); this partition is eventually hidden below earth crumbs. In sandy soils, the nest plug is sometimes lacking when it cannot be properly fixed due to the loose substrate. (Benoist, 1931; Ferton, 1892, 1894, 1897, 1901a, 1905, 1908, 1909; G. Le Goff, personal observation; A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Dipsacaceae (e.g. Scabiosa, Cephalaria, Pycnocomon) (Ferton, 1895; Benoist, 1931; Baldock et al., 2018 A. Müller, unpublished, based on 49 pollen samples from 32 different localities and on field observations).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) cretaea (Tkalcu, 1992)

1992 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) cretaea Tkalcu, Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae (Praha), 56: 215. Type material: Holotype m, “Sitia” [Greece: Crete], Tkalcu Collection (Praha); paratype f.

Distribution-Europe: GR(Cr).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: The only three pollen samples available so far (from the same locality) consist of pollen of Dipsacaceae (A. Müller, unpublished).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) dalmatica (Morawitz, 1871)

1871 Osmia dalmatica Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 8: 207. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Dalmatia” [Croatia].-Combination Osmia (Furcosmia) dalmatica Morawitz in Schmiedeknecht (1885: 22 [888]). Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) dalmatica (Morawitz) in Tkalcu (1974b: 329).

Distribution-Europe: AL, AND, CH, E, F, GR, H, HR, I, I(Sa), MK, SLO. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Móczár (1958); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Zanden (1985: 56).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities as vertical or horizontal fissures of rocks or between stones. Nesting material: The cells, which are generally built side by side, are two-layered: the outer layer is made of rather coarsely chewed leaf pieces (e.g. Helianthemum), the inner layer consists of petals (e.g. Geranium, Linum, Lactuca). (Müller et al., 1997; Westrich, 1989, 1996)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Dipsacaceae (Amiet et al., 2004; Westrich, 1989, 1996; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 2 pollen samples from 2 different localities and on field observations).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) duckeana (Kohl, 1905)

1905 Osmia Duckeana Kohl, Annalen des Kaiserlich-Königlichen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums (Wien), 20: 241. Type material: Holotype m, “Erdschias (Illany-Dagh, 1400 m)” [Turkey], NMW (Wien).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) duckeana (Kohl) in Zanden (1980: 231).

Distribution- Northern Asia: TJ. Southwestern Asia: SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1980: 232, 1992b: 67).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Dipsacaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 11 pollen samples from 5 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) oxypyga (Benoist, 1927)

1927 Osmia oxypyga Benoist, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc (Rabat), 7: 169. Type material: Holotype m, “Meknès” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris). Type species of Exanthocopa Tkalcu.-Combination Anthocopa oxypyga (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 51). Combination Hoplitis (Exanthocopa) oxypyga (Benoist) in Michener (2007: 469) and Ungricht et al. (2008: 99).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1993a: 55); Zanden (1985: 51).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Dipsacaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 1 pollen sample).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) quadrispina (Tkalcu, 1992)

1992 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) quadrispina Tkalcu, Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae (Praha), 56: 213. Type material: Holotype m, “Matmata” [Tunisia], RMNH (Leiden); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, LAR, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Dipsacaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 1 pollen sample and on field observations).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) taurica (Radoszkowski, 1874)

1874 Pseudosmia Taurica Radoszkowski, Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 48: 157. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Crimée (Salguir)” [Ukraine].-Combination Hoplitis (Pseudosmia) taurica (Radoszkowski) in Zanden (1988b: 119).-Synonymy with Osmia (Helicosmia) dimidiata Morawitz, 1870 in Ungricht et al. (2008), rejected by Ivanov et al. (2013).

Distribution-Europe: UA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) urfensis (Zanden, 1984)

1984 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) urfensis Zanden, Reichenbachia (Dresden), 22: 176. Type material: Holotype m, “Çeylanpinar/Urfa” [Turkey], RMNH (Leiden); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions:No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 4 pollen samples from 2 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) wadicola (Alfken, 1935)

1935 Osmia (Lithosmia) wadicola Alfken, Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen, 1: 188. Type material: Syntypes ff, “Wadi el Kelt” [Israel], ZHMB (Berlin).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) wadicola (Alfken) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1938: 469-470, 1949: 293-294); Tkalcu (1992: 213).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

singularis species group (“Glossosmia“)

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) anipuncta (Alfken, 1935)

1935 Osmia anipuncta Alfken, Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen, 1: 186. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1989: 74), “Jericho” [Palestine], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotypes ff.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) anipuncta (Alfken) in Zanden (1988b: 117).

Distribution-Europe: GR(Cr)Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1989: 74).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 6 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) cypriaca (Mavromoustakis, 1938)

1938 Osmia cypriaca Mavromoustakis, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. 11, 2: 467. Type material: Holotype f, “Limassol” [Cyprus], DAAN (Nicosia); paratypes mm, ff.-Combination Anthocopa (Glossosmia) cypriaca (Mavromoustakis) in Zanden (1988b: 119).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, JOR, SYR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in hard soil (4-5cm deep) with up to six ramifications containing 1-3 cells each. Nesting material: The cells are entirely constructed from flowers of Papaver. (Mavromoustakis, 1938, 1954c)

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 4 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) fasciculata (Alfken, 1934)

1934 Osmia fasciculata Alfken, Jahresbericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Graubündens, 72: 26. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1986: 68), “Mandas” [Italy: Sardinia], ETHZ (Zürich); paralectotypes ff.-Synonymy with Hoplitis rugidorsis (Pérez, 1895) in Zanden (1986: 68), rejected by A. Müller (unpublished).

1948 Osmia idalia Mavromoustakis, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. 12, 1: 581. Type material: Holotype f, “Yermasoyia River” [Cyprus], DAAN (Nicosia); paratypes mm, ff.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) idalia (Mavromoustakis) in Zanden (1980: 232, 1988b: 118). New synonymy based on new material from Sardinia (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Europe: F(Co), GR, GR(Cr), I(Sa)Southwestern Asia: CY, IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1986: 72, 1989: 74). Females of H. fasciculata from southwestern Iran are partly red-coloured in contrast to the entirely black females of more western populations.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrow in hard soil. Nesting material: Unknown (Mavromoustakis, 1948c)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 7 pollen samples from 7 different localities). Flower records: Centaurea, Scolymus (Mavromoustakis, 1948c).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) grumi (Morawitz, 1894)

1894 Osmia Grumi Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 28: 28. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1986: 70), “Jagnob: Kol” [Tajikistan], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Combination Anthocopa (Arctosmia) grumi (Morawitz) in Zanden (1980: 232).

1894 Osmia jagnobensis Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 28: 32. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1986: 70), “Jagnob: Kol” [Tajikistan], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Synonymy in Benoist (1927a: 171) and in Zanden (1986: 70).

1899 Osmia bipartita Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 61. Type material: Holotype m, “Turkestan” [Turkestan], ZMHB (Berlin).-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) bipartita (Friese) in Zanden (1988b: 118). New synonymy based on the original description, Zanden (1986) and new material from Central Asia (A. Müller, unpublished).

1980 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) cypriaca bayburtensis Tkalcu, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de Mulhouse, 1980: 38. Type material: Holotype f, “Bayburst (Gümüshane)” [Turkey], EMET (Erzurum).-Combination Anthocopa (Glossosmia) cypriaca bayburtensis Tkalcu in Zanden (1988b: 119). New synonymy based on new material from eastern Turkey (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Europe: E, P. Northern Africa: MA. Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ; Central Asian Ranges. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1927a: 171); Ducke (1900); Zanden (1985: 51-52, 1986: 70); Tkalcu (1980a: 38, as Hoplitis cypriaca bayburtensis).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in vertical loess scarps. The nest burrow enters more or less horizontal (ca. 5cm), then turns vertically. The vertical portion contains 2-3 linearly arranged cells one above the other. Nesting material: The cells are entirely built from three to four layers of petals of Geranium. The burrow in front of the cells is also lined with petals. A 2mm thick earth wall is constructed between the cap of one cell and the bottom of the following one. The horizontal part of the burrow is loosely filled with pieces of petals, often also with particles of earth up to the soil surface. The nest entrance is usually open, but sometimes blocked with mud. (Marikovskaya, 1968)

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 3 pollen samples from 2 different localities). Additional flower records: Origanum, Salvia, Sophora (Marikovskaya, 1968).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) hemisphaerica (Alfken, 1935)

1935 Osmia hemisphaerica Alfken, Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen, 1: 187. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1989: 74), “Jericho” [Palestine], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotypes mm, paralectotypes ff [= Hoplitis anipuncta (Alfken) in Zanden (1989: 74].-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) hemisphaerica (Alfken) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, IR, JOR, SYR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1948b: 217); Zanden (1986: 72, 1989: 74).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in hard soil. One nest contained 12 brood cells (length ca. 12mm) densely clustered at the end of a more or less vertical and 10cm long burrow. The brood cells, whose orientation varied from horizontal to nearly vertical, were built singly at the end of 1.5cm to 2.5cm long side burrows deviating from the main burrow or rarely from the side burrows. After cell closure, the short side burrows were closed with mud. Nesting material: The brood cells are entirely built of several layers of petals (e.g. Papaver). (C. Sedivy, C. Praz and A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 16 pollen samples from 5 different localities and on field observations).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) murina (Tkalcu, 1992)

1992 Anthocopa (Glossosmia) murina Tkalcu, Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae (Praha), 56: 215. Type material: Holotype m, “Kara Kala” [Turkmenistan], Halada Collection; paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Northern Asia: TM.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) rugidorsis (Pérez, 1895)

1895 Osmia rugidorsis Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 14. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1975a: 181), “Mascara” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris); paralectotype m.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) rugidorsis (Pérez) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Europe: I, I(Sa)Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 4 pollen samples from 4 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) singularis (Morawitz, 1875)

1875 Osmia singularis Morawitz, Travel to Turkestan by A. P. Fedtschenko, p. 89. Type material: m(m), “in valle Sarafschan” [Tajikistan], ZIN (St. Petersburg). Type species of Glossosmia Michener.-Combination Anthocopa (Glossosmia) singularis (Morawitz) in Popov (1952b: 101). Combination Hoplitis (Glossosmia) singularis (Morawitz) in Zanden (1988b: 119). Combination Osmia (Alcidamea) singularis Morawitz in Warncke (1991h: 735).

Distribution-Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TJ, TM, UZ. Southwestern Asia: IL?, TR?.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Dead, erect and pithy stems of Ferula; it is unclear whether the females gnaw the nest burrows by themselves or whether they use pre-existing cavities. The nesting females enter broken stems from their apex, unbroken stems through a hole at their side; it is unclear in the latter case, however, whether the females gnaw these holes by themselves. The are expected to be able to penetrate the lignified stem sides as the freshly eclosed imagines occasionally leave the nest by gnawing exit holes through the side of the Ferula stem. Nesting material: The cell partitions are made of leaf pulp. (Marikovskaya, 1995)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (Popov, 1967a; Marikovskaya, 1995; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 21 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) zaianorum (Benoist, 1927)

1927 Osmia zaianorum Benoist, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc (Rabat), 7: 170. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1985: 51), “M’rirt, à environ 80 kilomètres au Sud de Meknès” [Morocco], MNHN (Paris); paralectotypes ff.-Combination Anthocopa (Arctosmia) zaianorum (Benoist) in Zanden (1985: 51).

Distribution-Europe: E, P. Northern Africa: DZMA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1985: 51-52).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in sparsely vegetated horizontal soil. The only nest found so far consisted of a short vertical burrow of about 1cm in length, from which five 12-15mm long lateral burrows departed each having a single brood cell at its end. Nesting material: Petal pieces of Lotus corniculatus were used to line the cells walls and to build the cell closures. The short burrows leading to the brood cells were filled with mud. Cleptoparasite: Ensliniana bidentata. (Le Goff, 2017b; Baldock et al., 2018)

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Carduoideae (Asteraceae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 2 pollen samples from 2 different localities and on field observations).

villosa species group (“Arctosmia“)

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) brevispina (Tkalcu, 2000)

2000 Anthocopa (Arctosmia) brevispina Tkalcu, Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae (Praha), 64: 305. Type material: Holotype m, “Erzurum” [Turkey], EMET (Erzurum); paratypes ff.

Distribution-Europe: Caucasus. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) caucasicola Müller, 2012

2012 Hoplitis (Anthocopa) caucasicola Müller, Zootaxa, 3355: 40. Type material: Holotype m, “Georgia, Abkhazia, Gagry region, Mt. Mamzyshkha, 1600m” [Georgia], ETHZ (Zurich); paratype f.

Distribution-Europe: GE, RUS(SR). Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Possibly oligolectic on Asteraceae (Müller, 2012a).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) graeca (Tkalcu, 2000)

2000 Anthocopa (Arctosmia) graecaTkalcu, Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae (Praha), 64: 305. Type material: Holotype m, “Süd-Graccia. Attica östl. Athen” [Greece], Tkalcu Collection (Praha); paratypes ff.

Distribution-Europe: GR, GR(Aegina). Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities as rock fissures or between stones. Nesting material: The cells, which are built singly or in loose aggregations, are entirely constructed from several layers of petals cemented together with sand or mud. (A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on field observations).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) obtusa (Friese, 1899)

1899 Osmia obtusa Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 25: 62. Type material: Holotype m, “Gilek, Taurus cilic., Asia minor” [Turkey], ZMHB (Berlin).-Combination Anthocopa (Arctosmia) obtusa (Friese) in Tkalcu (1974b: 329).

2000 Anthocopa (Arctosmia) graeca ionica Tkalcu, Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae (Praha), 64: 305. Type material: Holotype f, “Ephessos” [Turkey], Liebig Collection; paratypes ff.-New synonymy based on material from Rhodes and western Turkey (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Europe: AL, GR, GR(Cr), HR?. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Ducke (1900); Zanden (1987: 80).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae (Carduoideae, Cichorioideae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 3 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) ulaangomensis (Tkalcu, 1995)

1995 Anthocopa (Arctosmia) ulaangomensis Tkalcu, Entomologische Abhandlungen (Dresden), 57: 114. Type material: Holotype f, “NW-Mongolei: Ulaangom/Charchiraa, Umgeb. Kurort” [Mongolia], MLUH (Halle); paratype f.

Distribution-Northern Asia: MGL.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) unispina (Alfken, 1935)

1935 Osmia (Lithosmia) unispina Alfken, Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen, 1: 187. Type material: Syntypes mm, ff (see Tkalcu, 2000a: 306), “Nablus” [Palestine], ZMHB (Berlin).-Combination Anthocopa (Arctosmia) unispina (Alfken) in Zanden (1988b: 119).

Distribution-Europe: GRSouthwestern Asia: IL, IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (2000a: 306-309).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Carduoideae and Cichorioideae) (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 3 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) ursina (Friese, 1920)

1920 Osmia ursina Friese, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift (Berlin), 1920: 49. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1985: 48), “Tunis merid.” [Tunisia], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype m.-Combination Anthocopa (Arctosmia) ursina (Friese) in Zanden (1985: 48).

1927 Osmia armata Benoist, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 96: 270. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1985: 48), “Alger” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris); paralectotype f.-Synonymy in Zanden (1985: 48).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Zanden (1985: 48-49).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) villosa (Schenck, 1853)

1853 Megachile villosa Schenck, Jahrbücher des Vereins für Naturkunde im Herzogthum Nassau, 9: 178. Type material: f(f), [Germany]. Type species of Arctosmia Schmiedeknecht and Lithosmia Alfken.-Combination Osmia (Lithosmia) villosa (Schenck) in Alfken (1935: 188). Combination Anthocopa (Arctosmia) villosa (Schenck) in Tkalcu (1974b: 329).

1869 Osmia platycera Gerstaecker, Entomologische Zeitung (Stettin), 30: 338. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Chur” [Switzerland], presumed lost (Tkalcu, 1974b: 329).-Synonymy in Dalla Torre (1896: 414).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL?, AND, B, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, F, FL, I, L, MK?, NL, RUS, SK, SLO. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1931); Ducke (1900); Medvedeva (1978); Móczár (1958); Scheuchl (1996); Schmiedeknecht (1885-1886); Tkalcu (1995: 115, 2000a: 306-309); Zanden (1987: 80).

Nesting biology-Nesting sites: Preexisting cavities: fissures and holes in rocks, stones and cinder; between stones; in abandoned nests of Megachile parietina; between pieces of bark. Nesting material: The cells, which are built singly or in small groups, are entirely constructed from several layers of petals (Geranium, Helianthemum, Hieracium, Meconopsis, Rosa, Ranunculus, Papaver) cemented together with sand or mud in varying quantities; the extremes are pure petal cells on the one hand and mud cells with petals only on the outside on the other hand. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1931; Ducke, 1900; Friese, 1893, 1895, 1923; Müller et al., 1997; Petit, 1970; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 1989)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae; species of the Cichorioideae are the most important pollen hosts, followed by representatives of the Carduoideae, whereas pollen of the Asteroideae is only exceptionally harvested; pollen of Helianthemum (Cistaceae) and Geranium (Geraniaceae) was recorded in few pollen loads, suggesting that plant taxa other than Asteraceae are rarely also exploited (Amiet et al., 2004; Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Müller, 2018b; Westrich, 1989).

yermasoyiae species group

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) daniana (Mavromoustakis, 1949)

1949 Osmia daniana Mavromoustakis, Eos (Madrid), 25: 294. Type material: Holotype m, “Dan” [Israel], DAAN (Nicosia); paratype f.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) daniana (Mavromoustakis) in Zanden (1988b: 118).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions:No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Polylectic, pollen sources include Asteraceae (Carduoideae, Cichorioideae), Echium (Boraginaceae), Linum (Linaceae) and Brassicaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 6 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) yermasoyiae (Mavromoustakis, 1938)

1938 Osmia yermasoyiae Mavromoustakis, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. 11, 2: 464. Type material: Holotype m, “Yermasoyia” [Cyprus], DAAN (Nicosia); paratypes mm, ff.-Combination Anthocopa (Anthocopa) yermasoyiae (Mavromoustakis in Tkalcu (1979: 318).

Distribution-Europe: AL, ARM,GR; Yugoslavia. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1949: 295-296); Tkalcu (1979: 318).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Excavated burrows in the ground. One nest excavated in hard-packed horizontal ground consisted of a single horizontally oriented brood cell at the end of a short burrow of ca. 1-2cm length. Nesting material: The cells are constructed from petals of Cistus and Papaver. The nest burrow is also lined with petals. At the end, the nest entrance is plugged with small stones and mud. (Mavromoustakis, 1938, 1954b; Standfuss et al., 2003; C. Sedivy and A. Müller, personal observation)

Flower preferences: Polylectic, pollen sources include Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichorioideae), Cistaceae, Papaver (Papaveraceae) and monocots (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 7 pollen samples from 7 different localities). Flower records: Chrysanthemum (Mavromoustakis, 1938), Convolvulus, Cistus (Mavromoustakis, 1952), Anthemis (Mavromoustakis, 1956a).

– subspecies asiae (Tkalcu, 1979)

1979 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) yermasoyiae asiae Tkalcu, Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca (Praha), 76: 319. Type material: Holotype f, “Erzurum” [Turkey], EMET (Erzurum); paratypes ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions:No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

subspecies corcyraea (Tkalcu, 1979)

1979 Anthocopa (Anthocopa) yermasoyiae corcyraea Tkalcu, Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca (Praha), 76: 319. Type material: Holotype f, “Corfu” [Greece], BMNH (London); paratypes m, ff.

Distribution-Europe: AL, GR, GR(Aegina, Limnos), MK; Yugoslavia.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

subspecies yermasoyiae (Mavromoustakis, 1938)

1938 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution- Europe: ARM,GR (Chios, Ikaria, Kos, Lesvos, Rhodes). Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Tkalcu (1979: 319).