Subgenus Heriades

The subgenus Heriades Spinola occurs in the Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Oriental region. It contains 6 described species in the Palaearctic.

Nest of Heriades (Heriades) truncorum (Linnaeus, 1758) in a preexisting burrow of a pithy stem; the partitions between the brood cells consist of resin. Foto A. Krebs.

Species accounts

Heriades (Heriades) crenulata Nylander, 1856

1856 Heriades crenulatus Nylander, Memoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg, 4: 111. Type material: f(f), “prope Parisios” [France].

Distribution-Europe: A,BG, BIH, BY, CH,CZ, D,E, E(Ba), F, GR, GR(Cr), H, HR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), M, MD, MK, P, PL, RO, RUS, SCG, SK, SLO, UA; CaucasusNorthern Africa: DZ, MA, TN. Northern Asia: KZ. Southwestern Asia: KZ, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1929a); Friese (1898); Medvedeva (1978); Scheuchl (1996); Schletterer (1889).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows and drilled borings in dead wood; hollow stems (e.g. Phragmites) and drilled borings in stems;glass tubes. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug made of resin. Small pebbles, sand grains, wood fibers and other particles are embedded in the outer plug surface. Cleptoparasite: Stelis breviuscula. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1929a; Brechtel, 1986; Ferton, 1895; Grandi, 1961;  Ruszkowski et al., 1995; Westrich, 1989; Baldock et al., 2008)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Carduoideae, Cichorioideae) with a preference for the subfamily Asteroideae (Amiet et al., 2004; Westrich, 1989; A. Müller, unpublished, based on 2 pollen samples from 2 different localities).

Heriades (Heriades) fertoni Benoist, 1938

1938 Heriades Fertoni Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 43: 85. Type material: f(f), “Dellys” [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).

Distribution-Northern Africa: DZ, TN.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 3 pollen samples from 3 different localities).

Heriades (Heriades) labiata Pérez, 1895

1895 Heriades labiatus Pérez, Espèces nouvelles de mellifères de Barbarie, p. 21. Type material: f(f), [Algeria], MNHN (Paris).

Distribution-Europe:E. Northern Africa: DZ.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known. Note: Male unknown.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Heriades (Heriades) rubicola Pérez, 1890

1890 Heriades rubicola Pérez, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 44: 190. Type material: Syntypes m(m), f(f), “Bordeaux, Toulouse” [France], MNHN (Paris).

1892 Heriades copetica Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 26: 149. Type material: Holotype m, “Germab” [Kazakhstan], ZIN (St. Petersburg).-Synonymy in Zanden (1994a: 170).

1931 Heriades crenulatus aurantifer Cockerell, The Entomologist (London), 64: 159. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1994a: 170), “Asni” [Morocco], BMNH (London); paralectotype m.-Synonymy in Zanden (1994a: 170).

1935 Heriades hierosolomita Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 40: 277. Type material: f(f), “Palestine: Jérusalem” [Israel], MNHN (Paris).-New synonymy based on type material (A. Müller, unpublished).

Distribution-Europe: A, BG, CH, CZ, D, E, E(Ba), F, GB, GR, GR(Cr), HR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), M, MK, P, SK, SLO. Northern Africa: DZ, MA, TN. Northern Asia: KS, KZ, TM. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, JOR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Benoist (1929a); Cross and Notton (2017); Friese (1898); Popov (1960b: 254-255).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: hollow stems (e.g. Phragmites, Rubus). Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug made of resin. (Benoist, 1929a; Ferton, 1894)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae (Amiet et al., 2004).

Heriades (Heriades) truncorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

1758 Apis truncorum Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, 10th edn, vol. 1, p. 575. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Kirby (1802: 259) [see also Day (1979: 75)], “in Europa” [Sweden], LSUK (London). Type species of Heriades Spinola.-Combination Hylaeus truncorum (Linnaeus) in Fabricius (1793: 305). Combination Megachile truncorum (Linnaeus) in Walckenaer (1802: 135). Combination Anthophora truncorum (Linnaeus) in Fabricius (1804: 379). Combination Anthidium truncorum (Linnaeus) in Panzer (1806: 252). Combination Trachusa truncorum (Linnaeus) in Jurine (1807: 252). Combination Trypetes truncorum (Linnaeus) in Schenck (1861: 347).

1802 Apis xanthogastria Schrank, Fauna Boica, vol. 2, p. 381. Type material: f(f), “um Ingolstadt” [Germany].-Synonymy in Warncke (1986: 115).

1808 Heriades sinuata Spinola, Insectorum Liguriae, vol. 2, p. 59. Type material: Holotype m, “Habitat prope Genuam” [Italy]. Synonymy in Praz (2017).

1841 Osmia punctatissima Lepeletier, Histoire Naturelle des Insectes, Hyménoptères, vol. 2, p. 329 [not seen]. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Peters (1971: 51), “environs de Paris” [France], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy in Benoist (1931: 44).

1889 Heriades mordax Schletterer, Zoologisches Jahrbuch für Systematik, 4: 661. Type material: Holotype f, [North Africa?], ZMHB (Berlin).-Synonymy in Schwarz et al. (1996: 115).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL, AND, ARM, B, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, F, FIN, FL, GE, GB, GR, H, HR, I, I(Sa), I(Si), L, LT, LV, MD, MK, N, NL, P, PL, RO, RUS, S, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Africa: DZ, MA. Northern Asia: KS, KZ, RUS(FS), RUS(WS), UZ. Southwestern Asia: CY, IL, IR, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1929a); Friese (1898); Medvedeva (1978); Romankova (1995); Scheuchl (1996); Schletterer (1889).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities:insect burrows and drilled borings in dead wood; hollow stems (e.g. Phragmites, Rubus, Vitis) and drilled borings in stems; insect burrows in soil (e.g. Odynerus); holes in walls; glass tubes. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug are made of resin (mainly from coniferous trees, also from Prunus avium). Small pebbles, sand grains, wood fibers (gnawed by the females from wood) and other particles are usually embedded in the outer plug surface, rarely also in the partitions. Resin is also used to smooth out irregularities or to partially line the cell walls. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1929a; Bonelli, 1967d; Bosch, Vicens and Blas, 1993; Brechtel, 1986; Enslin, 1933; Ferton, 1894; Friese, 1923; Grandi, 1961; Käpylä, 1978; Le Goff, 2003b; Maciel de Almeida Correia, 1980, 1981b; Müller et al., 1997; Rozen and Praz, 2016; Ruszkowski et al., 1995; Stoeckhert, 1933; Westrich, 1989; G. Else (unpublished manuscript)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Asteraceae with a distinct preference for the subfamily Asteroideae (Amiet et al., 2004; Maciel de Almeida Correia, 1981a; Käpylä, 1978; Westrich, 1989).

Heriades (Heriades) wilmattae Cockerell, 1931

1931 Heriades wilmattae Cockerell, The Entomologist (London), 64: 159. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1994a: 169), “Arround” [Morocco], BMNH (London).

1931 Heriades politulus Cockerell, The Entomologist (London), 64: 160. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Zanden (1994a: 169), “Ifrane” [Morocco], BMNH (London).-Synonymy in Zanden (1994a: 169).

Distribution-Northern Africa: MA.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Asteraceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 6 pollen samples from 1 locality).