Subgenus Foveosmia

According to Michener (2007), the subgenus Foveosmia occurs both in the Palaearctic and the Nearctic region. However, a recent phylogenetic analysis of the genus Chelostoma on a worldwide scale (Sedivy et al., 2008) rejected the monophyly of this subgenus. Instead, the former Foveosmia was found to consist of three clades: a North American clade closely associated with flowers of the Hydrophyllaceae, a Palaearctic clade comprising all Foveosmia species specialized on Campanulaceae, and Chelostoma ventrale, an oligolege of the Asteraceae. As the Palaearctic Chelostoma foveolatum is the type species of Foveosmia, the Nearctic species will have to be united under a new subgeneric name. Therefore, the subgenus Foveosmia is here considered to be exclusively Palaearctic. It contains 17 described species. At least 3 Palaearctic species are still undescribed (A. Müller, unpublished).

Female of the tiny Chelostoma (Foveosmia) campanularum (Kirby, 1802) collecting pollen on a flower of Campanula rotundifolia. Foto A. Müller.

Species accounts

campanularum species group

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) campanularum (Kirby, 1802)

1791 Apis florisomnis minima Christ, Naturgeschichte, Klassification und Nomenclatur der Insekten, p. 197. NOMEN PRAEOCCUPATUM [not Apis minima Poda, 1761]. Type material: No original material known, [Germany].-Synonymy in Schwarz et al. (1996: 115) [not Apis minima Poda, 1761].

1802 Apis Campanularum Kirby, Monographia Apum Angliae, vol. 2, p. 256. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of Tkalcu (1967: 94), [United Kingdom]; paralectotype m.-Combination Megachile campanularum (Kirby) in Latreille (1805: 52). Combination Anthophora campanularum (Kirby) in Illiger (1806: 121). Combination Heriades campanularum (Kirby) in Spinola (1808: 198).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL, AND, B, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, DK, E, F, FIN, FL, GB, GE, GR, HR, I, I(Si), L, LT, LV, MK, N, NL, P, PL, RO, RUS, S, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Africa: DZ. Southwestern Asia: TR. Extralimital: Nearctic (Canada, USA) [Introduced].

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1929a); Eickwort (1980: 318); Friese (1898); Medvedeva (1978); Scheuchl (1996); Schletterer (1889); Schwarz and Gusenleitner (1999: 211-213); Schwarz and Gusenleitner (2000: 154-160); Stöckhert (1929: 117-118); Torres et al. (2012). Misapplication: In many older publications Chelostoma florisomne auct. [not (Linnaeus, 1758)] is Chelostoma campanularum (Kirby).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood; hollow stems (e.g. Phragmites, Triticum). Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug made of mud. Small pebbles are added to the outside of the plug. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Benoist, 1929a; Ferton, 1895; Grandi, 1961; Käpylä, 1978; Stoeckhert, 1929; Westrich, 1989)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Amiet et al., 2004; Sedivy et al., 2008; Westrich, 1989).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) distinctum (Stöckhert, 1929)

1929 Eriades distinctus Stöckhert, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1929: 113. Type material: Syntypes m, f, “Pappenheim” [Germany], Stöckhert Collection.

1935 Heriades cantabrica Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 40: 279. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of Zanden (1990: 52), “Espagne: province de Santander, Près de Potes sur les pentes des Picos de Europa” [Spain], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia cantabrica (Benoist) in Warncke (1988c: 104).-Synonymy in Warncke (1986: 73).

Distribution-Europe: A, AND, AZ, B, BIH, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, E, F, FL, GR, H, HR, I, L, LT, LV, MK, NL, P, PL, RO, RUS, SCG, SK, SLO, UA; Caucasus. Southwestern Asia: IL, IR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Medvedeva (1978); Scheuchl (1996); Schwarz and Gusenleitner (1999: 211-213); Schwarz and Gusenleitner (2000: 154-160); Torres et al. (2012).

Nesting biology-Nesting site: Preexisting cavities: insect burrows and drilled borings in dead wood; hollow stems; old galls of Diplolepis mayri on Rosa. Nesting material: Cell partitions and nest plug made of mud. (Banaszak and Romasenko, 2001; Stoeckhert, 1929; Westrich, 1989)

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Amiet et al., 2004; Sedivy et al., 2008; Westrich, 1989).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) hellenicum (Benoist, 1938)

1938 Heriades hellenica Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 43: 87. Type material: Lectotype f, by designation of G. van der Zanden (A. Müller, unpublished), “Graecia” [Greece], MNHN (Paris).

Distribution-Europe: GR, GR(Cr).

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Schwarz and Gusenleitner (2000: 154-160).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Sedivy et al., 2008).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) josefi Schwarz & Gusenleitner, 2000

2000 Chelostoma josefi Schwarz & Gusenleitner, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 21: 160. Type material: Holotype m, “Hakkari: 22 km S Beytisebap, 1300m” [Turkey], Schwarz Collection (Ansfelden); paratypes m, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) longifacies Müller, 2012

2012 Chelostoma (Foveosmia) longifacies Müller, Zootaxa, 3355: 34. Type material: Holotype m, “Rhodes, Elousa, 200m” [Greece], ETHZ (Zurich); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Europe: GR(Chios, Lesvos, Rhodes, Samos, Thasos). Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Müller, 2012a).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) styriacum Schwarz & Gusenleitner, 1999

1999 Chelostoma styriacum Schwarz & Gusenleitner, Entomofauna (Ansfelden), 20: 211. Type material: Holotype m, “Steiermark, Dietersdorf bei Fürstenfeld, 260 m” [Austria], Schwarz Collection (Ansfelden); paratypes mm.

Distribution-Europe: A, BG, GR, H, HR, RO, SCG, SLO. Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Schwarz and Gusenleitner (2000: 154-160).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Sedivy et al., 2008).

foveolatum species group

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) foveolatum (Morawitz, 1868)

1868 Heriades foveolata Morawitz, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae (St. Petersburg), 5: 152. Type material: Syntypes mm, “im Magnan-Thale” [France], “auch bei Lugano und Montreux” [Switzerland], ZIN (St. Petersburg). Type species of Foveosmia Warncke.-Combination Osmia (Foveosmia) foveolata (Morawitz) in Warncke (1991c: 275).

Distribution-Europe: A, AL, AND, BIH, BG, CH, D, E, F, GE, GR, H, HR, I, P, PL, RUS, SCG, SK, SLO, UA. Northern Africa: TNSouthwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Amiet et al. (2004); Banaszak and Romasenko (2001); Benoist (1929a); Friese (1898); Medvedeva (1978); Warncke (1991c); Scheuchl (1996); Schletterer (1889); Schwarz and Gusenleitner (2000: 154-160); Torres et al. (2012).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Amiet et al., 2004; Sedivy et al., 2008).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) garrulum (Warncke, 1991)

1991 Osmia (Foveosmia) garrula Warncke, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 23: 270. Type material: Holotype f, “20 km W Sarikamis/Kars, in 2200 m” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: ARM, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Sedivy et al., 2008).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) isabellinum (Warncke, 1991)

1991 Osmia (Foveosmia) isabellina Warncke, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 23: 272. Type material: Holotype f, “10 km W Uludere/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Sedivy et al., 2008).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) torquillum (Warncke, 1991)

1991 Osmia (Foveosmia) torquilla Warncke, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 23: 271. Type material: Holotype f, “Suvari-Halil-Pass in 2300 m östl. Beytüssebap/Hakkari” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

laticaudum species group

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) bytinskii (Mavromoustakis, 1948)

1948 Heriades bytinskii Mavromoustakis, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. 12, 1: 179. Type material: Holotype m, “Jerusalem” [Israel], DAAN (Nicosia).-Combination Osmia (Foveosmia) bytinskii (Mavromoustakis) in Warncke (1991c: 273).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1954a: 96); Warncke (1991c).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Sedivy et al., 2008).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) forcipatum (Benoist, 1928)

1928 Heriades forcipata Benoist, Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle Paris, 34: 334. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of D.B. Baker (Warncke, 1991c: 275), “Taurus” [Turkey], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Foveosmia) forcipata (Benoist) in Warncke (1991c: 275).

Distribution-Europe: GR. Southwestern Asia: IL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Warncke (1991c).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) galeridum (Warncke, 1991)

1991 Osmia (Foveosmia) galerida Warncke, Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 23: 274. Type material: Holotype m, “Anamuryon/Icel” [Turkey], OLML (Linz); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) incognitum Müller, 2012

2012 Chelostoma (Foveosmia) incognitum Müller, Zootaxa, 3355: 32. Type material: Holotype m, “Rhodes, Afandou, 150m” [Greece], ETHZ (Zurich); paratypes mm, ff.

Distribution-Europe: GR(Chios, Lesvos, Rhodes). Southwestern Asia: TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Warncke (1991c: 269), as male of Chelostoma schlettereri.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Müller, 2012a).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) laticaudum (Benoist, 1938)

1938 Heriades laticauda Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 43: 86. Type material: Holotype m, “Graecia” [Greece], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Foveosmia) laticauda (Benoist) in Warncke (1991c: 277).

1948 Heriades enslini Mavromoustakis, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (London), ser. 12, 1: 177. Type material: Holotype m, “Nauplia” [Greece], DAAN (Nicosia).-Synonymy in Warncke (1991c: 277).

Distribution-Europe: GR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1954a: 96-97); Warncke (1991c).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Oligolectic on Campanula (Campanulaceae) and possibly also on closely related genera (Sedivy et al., 2008).

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) maidli (Benoist, 1935)

1935 Heriades Maidli Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 40: 279. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of G. van der Zanden (A. Müller, unpublished), “Asie mineure: Olympa, Broussa” [Turkey], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Foveosmia) maidli (Benoist) in Warncke (1991c: 276).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Benoist (1938: 87); Warncke (1991c).

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Probably oligolectic on Campanulaceae (A. Müller, unpublished, based on 2 pollen samples from 2 different localities).

subspecies maidli (Benoist, 1935)

1935 Automatically established nominotypical subspecific taxon (original description and type specimen are identical with those of the species rank taxon of the same name above).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: IL, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: No supplementary or more detailed morphological description known.

subspecies seidenstueckeri Mavromoustakis, 1954

1954 Chelostoma seidenstückeri Mavromoustakis, Eos (Madrid), 30: 95. Type material: Holotype m, “Homs” [Syria], DAAN (Nicosia).-Combination Osmia (Foveosmia) maidli seidenstueckeri (Mavromoustakis) in Warncke (1991c: 276).

Distribution-Southwestern Asia: SYR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Warncke (1991c). Note: Female unknown.

Chelostoma (Foveosmia) schlettereri (Friese, 1899)

1899 Osmia schlettereri Friese, Entomologische Nachrichten (Berlin), 21: 327. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of D. S. Peters (A. Müller, unpublished), “Bethlehem” [Palestine], ZMHB (Berlin); paralectotype f.-Combination Osmia (Foveosmia) schlettereri Friese in Warncke (1991c: 276).

1935 Heriades palaestina Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 40: 277. Type material: Holotype f, “Palestine: Bethléem” [Palestine], MNHN (Paris).-Combination Osmia (Foveosmia) palaestina (Benoist) in Warncke (1991c: 274).-New synonymy based on comparison of type specimens (A. Müller, unpublished).

1935 Heriades Pici Benoist, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 40: 279. Type material: Lectotype m, by designation of G. van der Zanden (A. Müller, unpublished), “Palestine: Bethléem” [Palestine], MNHN (Paris).-Synonymy with Osmia (Foveosmia) palaestina (Benoist) in Warncke (1991c: 274).

Distribution-Europe: GR. Southwestern Asia: IL, JOR, RL, SYR, TR.

Identification-Keys, Descriptions: Mavromoustakis (1954a: 97, 1955b: 335-336); Warncke (1991c). Misapplication: “Chelostoma schlettereri” in the male key of Warncke (1991c: 269) is Chelostoma incognitum Müller.

Nesting biology: Unknown.

Flower preferences: Unknown.