Palaearctic Wainia bees are snail shell nesters

Wainia (Caposmia) sexsignata, which occurs in southern Morocco and northern Western Sahara, nests in empty snail shells as reported inĀ a recent publication in the Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 65, 61-89, 2018 (see species account for details). As several Afrotropical Wainia (Caposmia) species also use snail shells as nesting site, snail shell nestingĀ appears to be a subgeneric trait of Wainia (Caposmia).

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