Books & Monographs

  • Laudan, Larry. 1984. Science and Values : The Aims of Science and Their Role in Scientific Debate. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Longino, Helen E. 1990. Science as Social Knowledge : Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Proctor, Robert. 1991. Value-Free Science? Purity and Power in Modern Knowledge. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  • Kitcher, Philip. 2001. Science, Truth, and Democracy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Machamer, Peter, and Gereon Wolters, ed. 2004. Science, Values, and Objectivity. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Kincaid, Harold, John. Dupré, and Alison. Wylie. 2007. Value-Free Science? : Ideals and Illusions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Carrier, Martin, Don Howard, and Janet A Kourany. 2008. The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice: Science and Values Revisited. University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Douglas, Heather. 2009. Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Early Proponents of Value Free Science

The 1950-1980s Debate

pro values:

contra values or epistemic values only:


  • Hempel, C. 1965. Science and Human Values. In Aspects of scientific explanation: And other essays in the philosophy of science (pp. 81–96). New York: Free Press.

The Recent Debate on Inductive Risk

The Social Responsibility of Scientists

Politicization of Science

Links & Goodies