Kampung_ “inhabited place larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town,” from Old French village “houses and other buildings in a group” (usually smaller than a town), from Latin villaticum “farmstead” (with outbuildings), noun use of neuter sing. of villaticus “having to do with a farmstead or villa,” from villa “country house”. Village idiot is recorded from 1907/etymology dictionary/
In Malaysia, the term kampung (sometimes spelling kampong) in the English language has been defined specifically as “a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country”. In other words, a kampung is defined today as a village in Brunei, Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu (village chief), who has the power to hear civil matters in his village (see Courts of Malaysia for more details). A Malay village typically contains a “masjid” (mosque) or “surau” (Muslim chapel), paddy fields and Malay houses on stilts. Malay and Indonesian villagers practice the culture of helping one another as a community, which is better known as “joint bearing of burdens” (gotong royong), as well as being family-oriented (especially the concept of respecting one’s family [particularly the parents and elders]), courtesy and believing in God (“Tuhan”) as paramount to everything else. It is common to see a cemetery near the mosque, as all Muslims in the Malay or Indonesian village want to be prayed for, and to receive Allah’s blessings in the afterlife. While in Sarawak and East Kalimantan, some villages are called ‘long’, primarily inhabited by the Orang Ulu. Singapore also follows the Malaysian kampung. However, there are only a few kampung villages remaining, mostly on islands surrounding Singapore such as Pulau Ubin. In the past, there were many kampung villages in Singapore but now there aren’t many on the mainland. The term “kampung”, sometimes spelled “kampong” is one of many Malay words to have entered common usage in Malaysia and Singapore. Locally, the term is frequently used to refer to one’s hometown.
Ilmy Finnuril, Mari Sætre, M. Fazrin Rahman, Nathalie Ender, David Kretz, Zhang Rong
To maximize high quality space in the kampung, a reorganization of functions and locations is necessary. We have a focus on open spaces and different strategies are used to increase the amount and quality of these spaces. We made examples of how open spaces in the kampung could be transformed. An open space could either be strengthened as a green space, or used as a site for a high density building. Weak housing structures would be given new use, for example as a base for a garden, that would work as flood protection for houses. We propose high buildings along the depot and towards the river, to create open alleys between water and street.
Cindy Aliffia, Yudha Kartana Putra, Yeo Jiahao, Bettina Dobler, Andreas Haeni
The main goal is to improve the living quality in the flood-affected areas inside the Kampung while densifying it at the same time. Due to this densification it is necessary to build enough free spaces. Therefore we propose three different kind of built open spaces:
1. Open Spaces at the River (Wall Gardens at the embankment area and dense four to six story houses on the erosion-side). 2. Streets as Open Spaces (Widened Streets in order to handle the traffic and to allow access to the infrastructure services such as trash collection and drinking water supply). 3. Open Spaces inside the Block in order to bring enough light and air inside the units.
Mélanie Ziegler, Kevin Olas, Ruen Qing Wong, Mao Ying Fu, Nur Fatina Risinda | Budi Susetyo
During our work in the field we gathered information on two different aspects. The first being the structural integrity of the buildings along our section (section 1A), the second one being the current land ownership situation. Based on this knowledge we decided to consolidate the land and step back the settlement on the river front and to compensate the land owners through further densification of existing buildings and by providing them on the new river front with a layer of pekarangan (private gardens). Through these measures and the introduction of a new vertical building typology along the river bank we applied our overall concept of “Facing The River”, which pursues the intention of turning the peoples focus from the interior of the kampung back towards the river.
Heng Juit Lian, Jessica Octaviani Gunawan, Sofyan Hadi Lubis, Vladimir Dianiska, Vera Schmidt, Irene Urso
River strategy: The main approach was to redefine a new edge removing the vulnerable settlements along the river, widening the riverbank and implementing new greenery. The river should also be activated as a transport line where goods and people can be transferred within the whole kampung. Land strategy: The site was divided into three layers – a new hard edge on the southern Part of Bukit Buri, a transportation backbone in the centre and e quiet green belt along the northern river side. Existent qualities in Bukit Duri were strengthened. The activities of workshops, shops, carpentries and traffic were enhanced. The old railway depot has been reactivated as a train station, the workshops densified and a new flexible building structure is planned.
Shamy Vivek Darne, Arief Prasetyo Nugroho, Nur Hadianto, Basil Witt, Shoichiro Hashimoto, Michael Dietrich
During the site visit at Kampung Melayu, our group saw a clear quality at the river banks of the Ciliwung River which is due to an amalgamation of the presence of open spaces, vegetation and amenities which draw people to the river edge for recreation. This quality diminishes as we proceed to the interior part of the Kampung due to the high density and lack of open space. Bearing this in mind, our design approach tries to enhance the quality in the Kampung by introducing so called pockets of open space between the newly introduced building typologies. One of these pockets is seen as a semipublic space shared and maintained by one building cluster.
Oliver Roth, Anna Gebhardt, Benedikt Kowalewski, Ronnie Mak, Meidesta Pitria, Arkham de Lounge
We want the ground floor and its activity to adjust to the dynamic topography (including flood surface). On the Kampung level that means that buildings, street live and vegetation adapt to the topological properties of their location. A first intervention will therefore be to clear the river edge of buildings according to the very low topography and to create a buffer zone for the flood. The inner of the kampung will be cleared according to the adaptability of the buildings to the topography. Some of them will be replaced by public open space, some by pekarangans and some by new buildings. The new building clusters will be connected and accessed by balconies. During flood the balconies become the level of the public space where live happens and the goods are traded.
Anh Le Pham, Annemarie Nagy, Kreshna Patrian, Lorraine Haussmann, Nitamia Indah Cantika &, Pascal Ryser
home gardens for the public_The private space/garden in the Kampung is maintained and secured by it’s owners – this is why these spaces work much better than any public one where nobody feels responsible for its maintenance. At the same time we recognized that these private gardens have a positive influence on the public space and can also be temporarily used by the public. We therefore propose to implement a belt of Pekarangan Houses along the River and a Network of Pekarangan Houses over the whole Kampung.Those Houses work as a role model for further renovation of the Kampung and enhance the quality of residential and public spaces.Through this strategy of appealing the current residents by high quality housing typologies, we feel confident that the Pekarangan Houses will develop a healthy and vivid Campuran.
Anna Yap, Feby Hendola, Edward Jewitt, Kylie Russnaik, Demjan Haller
When visiting the Kampung we realized the importance of the street life for the people. The problem is that when the flooding comes, the people are disconnected from roadsystem and infrastructure – the river eats up the streets. Our vision ist to maintain streetlife, infrastructure and connectivity during flooding. We introduce a new typologie of concentrated infrastructural hubs. They are interconected by suspension bridges and are able to provide the qualities and functionality oft he dry season street.