The main objective is first and foremost to provide the people living in the Kampung with a rigid, flood-resistent structure. Through the centrally located circulation area runs load-bearing wall, that runs from the ground level all the way to the roof. At the same time this wall is also used to hold all the utilities needed for a basic water supply. The rain water collected in a special container on the roof is hooked up to the water pipes running through the central wall. On every floor each unit has access to water by using the water running through the stare well wall. In order not to further contaminate the ground water and the river, a special micro-filtration toilet system is used as seen in schematic on the right. This system uses a biologically activated ultrafiltration-membrane that needs no further maintenance.
We propose a unit structure based on a water core with a skeleton attatched to it. Residents build theire own units within the skeleton. Rain water is collected on the roofs of the units, and stored in a watertank within the core. This water is used for kitchen and toilets in every unit, and the greywater is filtered and sent back into the ground. A typical unit consists of 4*4meters floor area on 4 levels. The ground floor is free and open for temporal programs when the area is not flooded.
The design intention is to create a public space that changes its place with the different water levels. A concrete grid structure, which reaches the high flood level, is the base of the units. In dry season, public life takes place in the streets on the ground and between the concrete structure. The space under each unit is used to sell own products from the workshop one story up or can be rented out for other public uses, creating a market beside the streets. Between the units, courtyards give the possibilty of shared pekarangans. During rain season, when the lower space is flooded, the grid structure is used to set up temporary streets and connections between the buildings. These streets on the high flood level form the public space during the three months of rain season. The selling is shifted to the balconies.
We see the unit as being a private living space for one family. Due to the high density and a preferable direct connection to the ground floor, the unit becomes a vertical addition of space, adjustable to the needs of the inhabitants. The Units are arranged around a concrete core containing water storage and sanitary functions, together with the core, the concrete load bearing walls build a base structure and provide enough stability against flooding and permanently wet ground. In upper floors of the building the construction changes to a light flexible wooden frame system.
The two main problems of the kampung is the rapid growth of population and the missing infrastructure to live in a safe and stable environment. Our idea is to give the people an infrastucture core upon which the people have the potential to grow and build. Like the stem of a tree and its branches providing shelter. While growing vertically the footprint of the building becomes smaller and allows space for nature and recreation. The proposed vertical infrastructure gives the people the opportunity to deal with the different flood levels of the Ciliwung river.
The structural concept is a concrete table for the first floor, which stabilizes the building against the horizontal forces in case of flooding. The upper floors consist of a lightweight framework construction in bamboo with a concrete core, which stabilizes the whole structure. The core is also the location of the entire fresh and black water infrastructure whereas the rainwater is collected and stored at the top and then used and reused on its way down through the sanitary equipment. Depending on the building‘s location in one of the different flood zones, the height of the concrete base can vary. The concept of the building is to provide the structure only, leaving the spatial organization of the rooms up to the residents.
Our aim is to deal with the fact of loosing the control of the ground floor with its normally functioning as circulation, working and public space during flooding. The units designed for this purpose provide a new circulation level. Unit:The construction is a very elementary pillar-slab construction in concrete. The units variate slightly in three types, having on the first floor either a totally open public floor, a semi open public space or an inner private closed core and a surrounding public circulation space. The ground floor can be used for public or temporary uses, which can easily be given up during flooding. The upper floors are convenient for living and sleeping rooms. The different types of the unit are supposed to work like a puzzle, providing a continuous public space for circulation which can be activated during flood period. Pontoon: To complete the circulation system over a street we designed bottle pontoons, which can be easily used to cross the flooded street and to connect the several open spaces on the first floor of the units.
Thrown In At The Deep End Construction-based thoughts lead us to the first idea of a design for a unit in the Kampung Melayu. Starting with a very small infrastructure module located in the base of the unit that should incorporate all basic functions like a sewage system and a fresh water supply we went on designing the unit out of very tiny modules that can easily be brought to the construction site by manpower due to the lack accesibility by cars or trucks. With our toolbox of different units like e.g. the staircase unit, the housing unit, the wet-wall unit etc. we want to provide a flexible and adaptive system that can be fitted to the very different building sites inside the Kampung.
Type 1:In Case of flooding, the workspace will be moved to the first floor. The violent flooding has taken apart the temporary constructions on the ground Floor. The units closest to the water come with deep point foundations, analog to constructions in the Netherlands. In a worst case scenario, at least the steel skelleton should survive the flooding.Type 2:To enable natural cross ventilation, the apartments reach from one facade to the other.. A reduced building structure meets the basic needs of the residents and can be extended horizontally and vertically. The compartmentation of rooms and the arrangement of the facade is left to the owner of the apartment. The participation of the residents leads to an identifying process.