The only constant in this complexity of the Kampung is the river and its repercussions on the daily life of the inhabitants. Under this aspect, the concept was built around the notion that the river is key for the success of the design project. The basic idea was to implement a continuous green space along the river, much like the Emerald Necklace in Boston by Frederick Law Olmsted, in order to improve the quality of the river and its river banks as a whole and to provide an improvement for all of the people affected by the river, as opposed to punctual interventions. The river itself is very winding, making the water to flow faster on the outside of each river bend and causing the terrain to erode. On the opposite side, the river bank is strongly affected by sedimentation caused by debris that is taken downstream by the flood. The main goal of the measure is to give the river more space and ease its flow. This is achieved by stepping the buildings on the sedimentation side back from the river edge and terracing the remaining terrain with gabion walls. On the outer edge the buildings are built directly on the river bank protected by a steep reinforcement wall which prevents the erosion of the topography. Furthermore, there are very complex ownership constellations with many small plots. Considering the requirement of doubling the density in the Kampung, it is crucial to develop more economic plot layouts and use the scarce land as efficiently as possible. The strategy applied in the project is based on the idea of gradually consolidating small plots into more economic pieces of land of sizes between 70 and 120 square meters. These new plots are filled with the new, structurally more integral units which then can be higher than the existing structures. This way the land owners are compensated for the land consolidation process by a higher building density and more living area to sell or rent. Plus, through this measure some odd plots are to be freed of the old built structure and the void is then transformed into public green spaces, badminton courts, playgrounds or fish ponds.
Currently, the buildings with the poorest structures are located right at the river edge. We propose to replace these houses by new, structurally stable buildings which act as barriers in flood situations for the houses behind. On the sedimentation side, the houses are stepping back in order to widen the riverbed, while on the other side the units are placed right at the riveredge, preventing further erosion. With the integration of a green ribbon, which is leading through the whole Kampung we want to provide a continuing connection along the Ciliwung River. With its steps on different levels it can be used during different flood seasons. The center of the Kampung is dominated by a market garden with productive crops adjacent to a market where the cultured fruits, vegetables and other goods can be sold.
The main goal is to improve the living quality in the flood-affected areas inside the Kampung while densifying it at the same time. Due to this densification it is necessary to build enough free spaces. Therefore we propose three different kind of built open spaces:
1. Open Spaces at the River (Wall Gardens at the embankment area and dense four to six story houses on the erosion-side). 2. Streets as Open Spaces (Widened Streets in order to handle the traffic and to allow access to the infrastructure services such as trash collection and drinking water supply). 3. Open Spaces inside the Block in order to bring enough light and air inside the units.
During our work in the field we gathered information on two different aspects. The first being the structural integrity of the buildings along our section (section 1A), the second one being the current land ownership situation. Based on this knowledge we decided to consolidate the land and step back the settlement on the river front and to compensate the land owners through further densification of existing buildings and by providing them on the new river front with a layer of pekarangan (private gardens). Through these measures and the introduction of a new vertical building typology along the river bank we applied our overall concept of “Facing The River”, which pursues the intention of turning the peoples focus from the interior of the kampung back towards the river.
As of right now the river is perceived as dangerous and a place where the poorest of the poor live. This notion of the river has to be fundamentally changed in order to revitalize it and its bounding areas. This re-thinking is achieved by up- grading the river front buildings in an all new building structure. Through this measure people will learn again to appreciate the river and its river banks. In order to respond to the requirements for each block, we have to divide them into smaller subblocks. Each subblock organizes the garbage collection and the drinking water availability for its own use whereas the rainwater is collected in each unit and used for domestic use only (graywater). Every subblock with a boundary along the river edge is responsible to clean this graywater and then drain it into the river.
The two blocks, one north of the Ciliwung River the other one on the south side, are differently affected by the river. The northern block touches the water on relatively short stretch where as the southern part has a large part of its boundary along the river edge. Both are in part flooded during the wet season, yet both of them have some areas which are high enough for keeping the water out and reducing flood damages to a minimum. First and foremost it is necessary to allow the river to expand and to provide it with a predictable area to flood during wet season. For this purpose the most exposed houses along the river bank are being removed in order to gradually terrace the terrain. In order to master this drastic situation a garbage collection depot is to be implemented into each block, preferably at its highest elevation to keep it from getting damaged by the yearly flooding.
The main objective is first and foremost to provide the people living in the Kampung with a rigid, flood-resistent structure. Through the centrally located circulation area runs load-bearing wall, that runs from the ground level all the way to the roof. At the same time this wall is also used to hold all the utilities needed for a basic water supply. The rain water collected in a special container on the roof is hooked up to the water pipes running through the central wall. On every floor each unit has access to water by using the water running through the stare well wall. In order not to further contaminate the ground water and the river, a special micro-filtration toilet system is used as seen in schematic on the right. This system uses a biologically activated ultrafiltration-membrane that needs no further maintenance.