The River shall become a source of economic and physical wellbeing for the inhabitants of Kampung. On its Riverbank, a terraced agricultural belt containing productive tree plantations will be developed. The steps will in case of flooding provide a water retention area for the Kampung. The area of the old train depot will be activated as a craft and trade hub. The depot will be converted into a cargo station. The built fabric will be reorganized in new sub blocks based on the current structure. This allows an incremental implementation and at the same time maintains the character of the Kampung. One building consists of up to three units whereas the unit will have two floors. The lower levels of flood endangered buildings will be made out of concrete or bricks. The upper floors will have a bamboo framework structure. The inhabitants will be asked to take part and can fill in the empty structures themselves.
The traffic axes appear to be the lifelines of the kampong. The river instead is mostly used as a trash disposal and is treated more as the backside of the Kampung. The goal is to merge the qualities of these two components and to give the river a new importance. We used these main traffic axes to frame the Kampung and define a new riverbed area of the Ciliwung. We implemented new high density units along the main traffic axes which should act as an entry gate for the Kampong behind. Due to a new secondary road system the structure should spread out towards the river and attract the people and their life activities to follow this movement. At the same time the river should deal in a similar way and the river landscape should grow into the Kampung and form a connection with the urban fabric. Our main intervention on the Ciliwung is to widen it and activate the river as a public transport system for the inhabitants. In the lower regions we step back with our units and want to create a continuous public open space along the river with green areas, steps and piazzas with sitting facilities. In the higher parts of the kampung we want to push the urbanity close to the river, which only opens up in small green pockets and we created a small pathway along the river which is bordered by a retaining wall.
We propose to remodel the whole riverbank with a multifunctional greenbelt. The greenbelt contians agricultural uses, so called „Kebuns“ and a protective belt out of trees, recreation areas with gathering, market areas and large open green spaces as flood cache. Right behind the greenbelt the stepped block structure starts; first with a high step to disconnect the very low riverbank from the urban space and avoid building on the riverbank due to its frequent flooding. Different steps in the topography define different floodlevels and allow the sewage system to work just with gravity. New central roads now can be accessed by cars in case of emergency. The new units can be easily integrated to the existing building structure due to their flexibility, also be separated into small and autonomous pieces. We see our project as a process starting with a big infrastructure intervention, the clearing of the riverbank and a few units which number increases over time.
The only constant in this complexity of the Kampung is the river and its repercussions on the daily life of the inhabitants. Under this aspect, the concept was built around the notion that the river is key for the success of the design project. The basic idea was to implement a continuous green space along the river, much like the Emerald Necklace in Boston by Frederick Law Olmsted, in order to improve the quality of the river and its river banks as a whole and to provide an improvement for all of the people affected by the river, as opposed to punctual interventions. The river itself is very winding, making the water to flow faster on the outside of each river bend and causing the terrain to erode. On the opposite side, the river bank is strongly affected by sedimentation caused by debris that is taken downstream by the flood. The main goal of the measure is to give the river more space and ease its flow. This is achieved by stepping the buildings on the sedimentation side back from the river edge and terracing the remaining terrain with gabion walls. On the outer edge the buildings are built directly on the river bank protected by a steep reinforcement wall which prevents the erosion of the topography. Furthermore, there are very complex ownership constellations with many small plots. Considering the requirement of doubling the density in the Kampung, it is crucial to develop more economic plot layouts and use the scarce land as efficiently as possible. The strategy applied in the project is based on the idea of gradually consolidating small plots into more economic pieces of land of sizes between 70 and 120 square meters. These new plots are filled with the new, structurally more integral units which then can be higher than the existing structures. This way the land owners are compensated for the land consolidation process by a higher building density and more living area to sell or rent. Plus, through this measure some odd plots are to be freed of the old built structure and the void is then transformed into public green spaces, badminton courts, playgrounds or fish ponds.
In the most flood prone areas, a sequence of islands is formed. Close to those islands a new typology of Cluster Units is implemented. Split up into smaller units, the buildings fit into the existing subblock structures and mediate the newly introduced scale with the existing urban fabric. Along the river, a series of gardens provide a private type of green space. As soon as the water level rises, islands and gardens become part of a river that has a cross-section of at least 30 metres. In flood case the courtyards of the Cluster Units stay dry. Underneath those raised courtyards, there are membrane filtering systems to provide drinking water. Through our project the Kampung becomes a system of islands and is provided with infrastructure and green spaces.
Our main idea was to separate the river from the green area and by doing so to create two different orientation sides that go along with different qualities of life, that allows a much more dense housing-typology. We intended to shorten the river flow and decrease the water speed during flood season with ‚green cuts’ through the mainland. These green canals would be carved into the ground – in this way they could accomodate initial water amounts of the flood and therefore would be unattractive for the inhabitants to built on. They would provide open space where nature can develop. Our housing typology provides a modular system, laid down on a grid organization, that is broken down to an individual, flexible unit. This Unit can be combined and adapted to different uses as needed and would be erected with prefabricated columns and beams – where walls could be filled up with brick.