Carl Gustav Jung’s letters to Freud revisited

Carl Gustav Jung’s letters to Freud revisited

Precious letters from the early days of the psychoanalytical movement online

Both correspondents are luminaries and their importance for clinical psychology is vast. We are talking about the founder of analytical psychology, Carl Gustav Jung, and Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis. From 1906 they spent seven years communicating regularly on a personal and academic level – until they parted ways in 1914.  Read more

How a dentist wrote medical history with an iron hand

How a dentist wrote medical history with an iron hand

When demand for prostheses increased massively in war-torn Europe at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Pierre Ballif (1775–1831), personal dentist to the King of Prussia in Berlin, developed new technology and in doing so created the basis for the further development of artificial limbs. Read more

He who looks shall find: letters to and from Carl Gustav Jung in the ETH Zurich University Archives

He who looks shall find: letters to and from Carl Gustav Jung in the ETH Zurich University Archives

With whom did Carl Gustav Jung, psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology, correspond? Over 32,000 letters, carbons, transcripts and copies from six decades are now described in the ETH Zurich University Archives database and can be searched for online.

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Zwischen Antisemitismus und Hilfsbereitschaft: Die ETH Zürich und die studentischen Flüchtlinge 1933-45

Zwischen Antisemitismus und Hilfsbereitschaft: Die ETH Zürich und die studentischen Flüchtlinge 1933-45

Jetzt wurde es eng für Rudi Borth. Eben erst hatte der 27- jährige Deutsche sein ETH-Diplom als Chemiker erhalten. Und nun erreichten ihn gleich zwei Hiobsbotschaften: Das Aufgebot zur Kriegsdienstleistung in Nazi-Deutschland und fast gleichzeitig die Nachricht, dass Read more

Die Kriminalfalle – Friedrich Glauser und Carl Gustav Jung

Die Kriminalfalle – Friedrich Glauser und Carl Gustav Jung

„Was ist das denn für ein Experiment?“ wollte O’Key wissen. „Es ist“, sagte Madge, ihr Tonfall wurde ganz wissenschaftlich, sie war vollkommen die erste Assistentin einer psychiatrischen Klinik, es ist das Jungsche Assoziationsexperiment…“

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From the Trenches to the Lecture Hall: Wounded and POW Students at ETH Zurich in the First World War

From the Trenches to the Lecture Hall: Wounded and POW Students at ETH Zurich in the First World War

Switzerland must have seemed like paradise to him. After one and a half years in POW camp in Germany, Jean Chopin, a twenty-five-year-old French infantryman, was allowed to leave for neutral Switzerland in the spring of 1916. At long last, after a hiatus of almost three years, he could consider to resume his studies in the autumn of 1917.

Chopin_Formular

Application form for POWs looking to study in Switzerland.
(ETH-Library, ETH-Zurich University Archives, Chopins register EZ-REK 1/1/14931)

Chopin resumed his studies in pharmacy, which he had begun at the University of Dijon before the war, at ETH Zurich. He was joined by other POWs, most of whom were from Germany, but also France, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Great Britain. Around eighty POWs were granted permission to study as diploma students at ETH Zurich during the First World War; more than 1,650 POW students were enrolled at universities throughout Switzerland in all.

Although they were not forbidden from wearing their military uniforms in Zurich, the POW students were subject to military discipline. They were supposed to keep a low profile to avoid any potential hostility on the streets. Strolling along the Limmatquai, Bahnhofstrasse or even standing still was prohibited!

Matrikel_Chopin_bearbeitet

Excerpt from Jean Chopin’s student file. The POW/internment stamp is clearly visible.
(ETH Library, ETH-Zurich University Archives, EZ-REK 1/1/14931)

Only seriously ill or wounded POWs qualified for internment in Switzerland (along with POWs who had more than three children). The reasons for Jean Chopin’s transfer to Switzerland were neurasthenia (nervous disease), a weak heart and kidney problems. His compatriot André Ayçoberry, who had lost an eye during the war, studied mechanical engineering and served as president of the private benefit society ‘Amicale des internés alliés à Zurich’.

Bahnhof_bearbeitetFrench officer POWs were often catered for in Zurich’s railway station restaurant (detail from the heavily processed cover photo of the Schweizer Illustrierte Zeitung, 19.2.1916, No. 8)

The Swiss government’s willingness to take on POWs was primarily based on humanitarian grounds. However, a series of other arguments supported this policy:

  • The POWs were a welcome source of income for the Swiss hotel industry as tourists had tended to stay away since the outbreak of war. Now the home countries paid for their POWs’ sojourns in the holiday regions of Switzerland.
  • The Swiss Federal Council used the presence of POWs in the country as leverage in negotiations with foreign governments over the quantity of food imports.
  • Wounded POWs offered Swiss doctors an opportunity to research the effects of modern weapons and to develop new treatments for war injuries.

Switzerland accepted a total of 70,000 POWs from 1916 to 1918. As many were allowed to return home before the end of the war, however, there were never more than 30,000 POWs in the country at the same time. Chopin and Ayçoberry gave up their studies at ETH Zurich in the summer of 1918 after they had been granted permission to return to their native France.

 

Sources: the student register files for diploma students and the lists of students can be consulted in the ETH-Zurich University Archives.

Roland Gysin: “Und wir möchten helfen. Die Internierung verletzter Soldaten und Offiziere.” In: Kriegs- und Krisenzeit. Zürich während des Ersten Weltkrieges, ed. Erika Hebeisen et al., Zurich 2014, pp. 109-117.

Thomas Bürgisser: “Menschlichkeit aus Staatsräson. Die Internierung ausländischer Kriegsgefangener in der Schweiz im Ersten Weltkrieg.” In: 14/18: die Schweiz und der Grosse Krieg, ed. Roman Rossfeld et al., Zurich 2014, pp. 266-289.

 

Wie der Tee nach Japan kam

Wie der Tee nach Japan kam

Tee spielt in der japanischen Kultur eine wichtige Rolle. Das war nicht immer so, denn das Getränk hatte in Japan anfänglich einen schweren Stand. Der Teegenuss verbreitete sich in einer Zeit, als Kyoto in den letzten Jahrzehnten des 12. Jahrhunderts von einer Reihe von Naturkatastrophen heimgesucht wurde und viele Menschen von Krankheit und Pestilenz gebeutelt waren. Read more

Freud und Leid – Zum 75. Todestag von Sigmund Freud

Freud und Leid – Zum 75. Todestag von Sigmund Freud

Am 23. September 1939 starb Sigmund Freud, Begründer der Psychoanalyse, in London. Unter den Beileidsbezeugungen an seine Frau Martha und die Tochter Anna, die mit ihm im vorangegangenen Jahr aus Wien vor den Nationalsozialisten geflohen waren, befanden sich auch Trostworte aus der weitverzweigten Verwandtschaft. Aus Zürich hatte Paul Bernays geschrieben, dessen beide Eltern Cousin und Cousine der Witwe waren. Read more

Athanasius Kircher: Magnes, sive de arte magnetica opus tripartitum (Coloniae Agrippinae, 1643)

Athanasius Kircher: Magnes, sive de arte magnetica opus tripartitum (Coloniae Agrippinae, 1643)

Der deutsche Jesuit und Universalgelehrte Athanasius Kircher forschte und lehrte in einem weiten Themenspektrum, u.a. auch in den Bereichen Medizin und Musik. Er erkannte als erster Mensch den Einfluss von „kleinen Wesen“ auf die Verbreitung der Pest und schuf erste Regeln zu ihrer erfolgreichen Bekämpfung. Read more